Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

MIT biologists link calorie restriction, endocrine function in worm longevity

14.06.2007
Work advances study of aging

The link between calorie restriction and a longer, healthier life may lie in the head, not in the gut, MIT biologists report.

Dietary restriction extends lifespan and retards age-related disease in many species, although the phenomenon's underlying mechanisms remain a mystery. Underfeeding an organism such as the ordinary roundworm alters its endocrine function, which regulates hormones instrumental in metabolism. But no connection between the longevity induced by calorie restriction and the endocrine system has been found-until now.

In a recent issue of Nature, Leonard P. Guarente, Novartis Professor of Biology, and postdoctoral associate Nicholas A. Bishop show that a particular pair of neurons in the heads of underfed worms may play an essential role in their lengthy lives. When these two individual neurons were killed by a laser beam, the worms could not enjoy the longevity normally associated with calorie restriction.

... more about:
»Endocrine »Guarente »calorie »longevity »neurons

"This study directs our attention to the brain as a center for mediating the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in higher organisms, potentially including us," Guarente said. "A complete molecular understanding of calorie restriction may lead to new drugs for the major diseases of aging."

Restricting calories activates a gene in two neurons, Guarente and Bishop report. The gene, called skn-1, is found in a particular pair of sensory neurons in the head of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. These neurons are critical in translating information about food availability into endocrine signals. The neurons lead peripheral tissues to increase their metabolic activity, and this enhanced metabolism makes the worms live longer than normally fed counterparts.

In the study, the researchers also confirmed the results with a genetic test: They showed that skn-1 genes expressed only in these two cells support dietary-restriction longevity; without the genes, the longevity increase on dietary restriction disappeared. At the same time, the lack of skn-1 genes had little or no effect on the lifespan of worms whose calorie intake was not restricted, Guarente said.

"We suspect that the two neurons sense dietary restriction and secrete a hormone that increases metabolism-and life span-in the animal," he said.

Guarente, who published "Ageless Quest: One Scientist's Search for Genes that Prolong Youth" in 2003, discovered in 2000 that calorie restriction activates the silenced information regulator (SIR2) gene, which has the apparent ability to slow aging. This gene makes a protein called Sir2, which Guarente has shown is integrally tied to extending life span in yeast and in the roundworm. Humans carry a similar gene. How Sir2 relates to the two neurons identified in the findings is not yet clear, Guarente said.

Guarente suggests that the first commercial products based on manipulating Sir2 to slow aging will appear in the next 10 to 20 years. It is only a matter of time, he said, before aging itself is declared a disease.

This work is supported by the National Institutes of Health and the Glenn Foundation.

Deborah Halber | MIT News Office
Further information:
http://www.mit.edu

Further reports about: Endocrine Guarente calorie longevity neurons

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Molecular microscopy illuminates molecular motor motion
26.07.2017 | Penn State

nachricht New virus discovered in migratory bird in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
26.07.2017 | Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Carbon Nanotubes Turn Electrical Current into Light-emitting Quasi-particles

Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers

Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...

Im Focus: Flexible proximity sensor creates smart surfaces

Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.

At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...

Im Focus: 3-D scanning with water

3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects

A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

CCNY physicists master unexplored electron property

26.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Molecular microscopy illuminates molecular motor motion

26.07.2017 | Life Sciences

Large-Mouthed Fish Was Top Predator After Mass Extinction

26.07.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>