Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Genetic roots of bipolar disorder revealed by first genome-wide study of illness

09.05.2007
Targeting enzyme produced by a specific gene may lead to better medications

The likelihood of developing bipolar disorder depends in part on the combined, small effects of variations in many different genes in the brain, none of which is powerful enough to cause the disease by itself, a new study shows. However, targeting the enzyme produced by one of these genes could lead to development of new, more effective medications. The research was conducted by scientists at the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), with others from the Universities of Heidelberg and Bonn and a number of U.S. facilities collaborating in a major project called the NIMH Genetics Initiative.

The study is the first to scan virtually all of the variations in human genes to find those associated with bipolar disorder. Results were published online May 8 in Molecular Psychiatry by Amber E. Baum, PhD, lead researcher Francis J. McMahon, MD, and colleagues.

"This is an example of how advances in genetics research feed into practical applications. This research would not have been possible a very few years ago. We now have a new molecular target scientists can investigate in their search for better medications for bipolar disorder," said NIH Director Elias A. Zerhouni, MD.

... more about:
»DGKH »Genetic »bipolar »enzyme

About 5.7 million American adults have bipolar disorder, which also is called manic-depressive illness. Symptoms include extremes in mood, from pronounced over-excitement and elation, often coupled with severe irritability, to depression. Children also may have the condition, usually in a more severe form than adults.

"We're beginning to get a foothold on the genetics of this complex brain disorder," said NIMH Director Thomas R. Insel, MD.

Most people occasionally have mood swings, but the shifts that occur in bipolar disorder, and the changes in behavior and energy level that accompany them, are sometimes disabling. Lithium and the other mood-stabilizing medications used to treat the condition help many patients.

But some people do not respond to these medications, and clinicians need more options so that they can tailor treatments to each patient. People inherit different gene variations, which may influence whether or not they respond to a given medication. Identifying and targeting these variations could help scientists develop additional medication options that take these differences into account.

One of the genes the researchers correlated with the disorder, DGKH, is active in a biochemical pathway through which lithium is thought to exert its therapeutic effects. The gene produces an enzyme (diacylglycerol kinase eta) that functions at a point closer to the root of the lithium-sensitive pathway than does the protein that lithium is thought to target. Scientists can now try to develop more effective medications by focusing on new compounds that act on the DGKH enzyme or regulate how much of the enzyme is produced. The DGKH gene is on chromosome 13.

Several other genes detected in the study produce proteins involved in this and other biochemical pathways thought to play a role in bipolar disorder. Understanding the effects that variations of these genes have on brain-cell function could lead to explanations of how they contribute to the condition and how it might be better prevented or treated.

"Treatments that target just a few of these genes or the proteins they make could yield substantial benefits for patients. Lithium is still the primary treatment for bipolar disorder, but DGKH is a promising target for new treatments that might be more effective and better tolerated," McMahon said.

The finding was enabled by recent genetics technology that allows researchers to scan, in a single experiment, thousands of genes for variations. Everyone has the same genes, but variations in them influence whether or not a person gets a specific disease. In this study, researchers compared variations found in the scans of 413 adults who had bipolar disorder with variations found in the scans of 563 healthy adults.

By pooling the genetic material of the adults with bipolar disorder, the U.S. researchers were able to scan the entire group at a small fraction of the cost of scanning each person's material individually. The genetic material of the healthy group was pooled and scanned separately, again at a fraction of the cost of individual scans. The researchers then zeroed in on the gene variations that occurred more often in the people with bipolar disorder and examined them individually.

An important issue in genetics research is that findings correlating specific genes with specific diseases in one population may not apply to other populations. This study addressed that issue by focusing on US participants of European ancestry, then repeating the study in a large group of patients in Germany. Similar outcomes were found in both populations, strengthening the validity of the results. A subsequent study is examining whether the results apply to other populations, and will look for common variations among them.

The researchers will soon make the results of their scans available, on a website, to other scientists who are pursuing this line of research.

Susan Cahill | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nimh.nih.gov/healthinformation/bipolarmenu.cfm

Further reports about: DGKH Genetic bipolar enzyme

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Making fuel out of thick air
08.12.2017 | DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

nachricht ‘Spying’ on the hidden geometry of complex networks through machine intelligence
08.12.2017 | Technische Universität Dresden

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

Im Focus: Successful Mechanical Testing of Nanowires

With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong

Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...

Im Focus: Virtual Reality for Bacteria

An interdisciplinary group of researchers interfaced individual bacteria with a computer to build a hybrid bio-digital circuit - Study published in Nature Communications

Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have managed to control the behavior of individual bacteria by connecting them to a...

Im Focus: A space-time sensor for light-matter interactions

Physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (run jointly by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics) have developed an attosecond electron microscope that allows them to visualize the dispersion of light in time and space, and observe the motions of electrons in atoms.

The most basic of all physical interactions in nature is that between light and matter. This interaction takes place in attosecond times (i.e. billionths of a...

Im Focus: A transistor of graphene nanoribbons

Transistors based on carbon nanostructures: what sounds like a futuristic dream could be reality in just a few years' time. An international research team working with Empa has now succeeded in producing nanotransistors from graphene ribbons that are only a few atoms wide, as reported in the current issue of the trade journal "Nature Communications."

Graphene ribbons that are only a few atoms wide, so-called graphene nanoribbons, have special electrical properties that make them promising candidates for the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

Blockchain is becoming more important in the energy market

05.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Making fuel out of thick air

08.12.2017 | Life Sciences

Rules for superconductivity mirrored in 'excitonic insulator'

08.12.2017 | Information Technology

Smartphone case offers blood glucose monitoring on the go

08.12.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>