Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

In young mice, gregariousness seems to reside in the genes

05.04.2007
Beyond the lineage of primates, according to scientific gospel, social behavior is dictated primarily by competition for resources such as food, territory and reproduction.

That may well be true for many adult animals, but in a groundbreaking study researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison have found evidence that social interactions among young mice result from basic motivations to be with one another. What's more, the researchers say, the extent of a young mouse's gregariousness is influenced by its genetic background.

The work, reported today (April 3, 2007) in the journal Public Library of Science (PLoS) One, is important because it provides the first scientific insight that genes contribute to a novel form of natural reward - the pleasure of interacting with other juveniles. At a practical level, the new findings provide a foundation for understanding the motivations that underlie acts of altruism. Moreover, the work may also help influence the development of new, more effective drugs to treat depression, addiction and autism.

"We are quite confident it is genetic," says Jules B. Panksepp, a UW-Madison neuroscience graduate student and the lead author of the new study, which was conducted using two different strains of young mice, one gregarious in nature, the other much less so. "Their motivation to engage others varies with their genetic background; it appears to affect how young mice approach social situations."

The inbred strains of mice used in the study, once weaned, display markedly different social aptitudes. Young mice from one strain are amicable, spending much more time seeking out and interacting with other mice introduced into their environment. By controlling for a host of behavioral variables during the course of adolescent development, the researchers demonstrated specific differences in social motivations among juveniles of the two mouse strains - behavioral variations that could only be explained by genetic differences.

Intriguingly, the Wisconsin researchers also found that young mice from the gregarious strain seek environments that predict the possibility of a social encounter and avoid places where they have experienced social isolation.

"They like company. That's the point," says Garet Lahvis, of the gregarious strain of mouse. Lahvis is a professor of surgery in the UW School of Medicine and Public Health and the senior author of the new study.

Performing under the dim glow of red lights to simulate the nocturnal environment when mice are most active, the sociability of test mice was assessed when they were reunited with their former cage mates. At the same time, the researchers tuned in to the ultrasonic chattering that mice use to communicate with each other.

For the more socially predisposed animal, gregariousness was the order of the day, says Lahvis: "A young mouse will seek social interaction and avoid isolation. The social life of these animals is a rich integration of behavior, vocalizations and positive emotional experience."

The level of social interplay of the two strains of mice, Panksepp and Lahvis note, is mirrored in their vocalizations, and the differences in vocalization between the two types of mouse also segregated with genetic background.

"We identified associations between types of mouse vocalizations and the extent of their social interactions," says Lahvis. "There is an association between high-pitched calls in mice and positive experience. The quality and quantity of the call are tightly associated with the nature of the interaction itself."

As the mice neared sexual maturity, the genetic influence on social behavior ebbed and the animals became much more responsive to social cues such as gender, according to Lahvis.

"As they get older, they take on the [behavioral] characteristics associated with gender," Lahvis explains. "The initial genetic predisposition gets masked by reproductive maturity."

This result is crucial, argue Lahvis and Panksepp, because it suggests that the genetic influences on juvenile social behavior may be quite distinct from genetic factors that affect adult social behavior, a finding the researchers suggest has great importance for understanding social evolution, as well as developing more realistic animal models of pervasive developmental disorders, such as autism.

In past research, the social capacities of rodents have been studied primarily in the context of behaviors associated with sexual reproduction, territorial defense and parental care. Those studies, say Lahvis and Panksepp, do not account for the many forms of social interaction that occur prior to sexual maturity, nor do they account for the many kinds of social groupings that occur throughout the animal kingdom and provide much more subtle benefits to an individual.

Results of the new work suggest that juvenile animals may experience different emotional states, depending upon whether they are alone or with others, and that specific genes may influence how they feel within different social contexts.

Identifying the gene or genes at play, says Lahvis, is the next step. "We now know that social motivation can be responsive to genetic factors, but we don't know what these factors are."

Garet P. Lahvis | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wisc.edu

Further reports about: Interaction Panksepp gregarious gregariousness juvenile vocalization

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Multi-institutional collaboration uncovers how molecular machines assemble
02.12.2016 | Salk Institute

nachricht Fertilized egg cells trigger and monitor loss of sperm’s epigenetic memory
02.12.2016 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>