Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

In young mice, gregariousness seems to reside in the genes

05.04.2007
Beyond the lineage of primates, according to scientific gospel, social behavior is dictated primarily by competition for resources such as food, territory and reproduction.

That may well be true for many adult animals, but in a groundbreaking study researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison have found evidence that social interactions among young mice result from basic motivations to be with one another. What's more, the researchers say, the extent of a young mouse's gregariousness is influenced by its genetic background.

The work, reported today (April 3, 2007) in the journal Public Library of Science (PLoS) One, is important because it provides the first scientific insight that genes contribute to a novel form of natural reward - the pleasure of interacting with other juveniles. At a practical level, the new findings provide a foundation for understanding the motivations that underlie acts of altruism. Moreover, the work may also help influence the development of new, more effective drugs to treat depression, addiction and autism.

"We are quite confident it is genetic," says Jules B. Panksepp, a UW-Madison neuroscience graduate student and the lead author of the new study, which was conducted using two different strains of young mice, one gregarious in nature, the other much less so. "Their motivation to engage others varies with their genetic background; it appears to affect how young mice approach social situations."

The inbred strains of mice used in the study, once weaned, display markedly different social aptitudes. Young mice from one strain are amicable, spending much more time seeking out and interacting with other mice introduced into their environment. By controlling for a host of behavioral variables during the course of adolescent development, the researchers demonstrated specific differences in social motivations among juveniles of the two mouse strains - behavioral variations that could only be explained by genetic differences.

Intriguingly, the Wisconsin researchers also found that young mice from the gregarious strain seek environments that predict the possibility of a social encounter and avoid places where they have experienced social isolation.

"They like company. That's the point," says Garet Lahvis, of the gregarious strain of mouse. Lahvis is a professor of surgery in the UW School of Medicine and Public Health and the senior author of the new study.

Performing under the dim glow of red lights to simulate the nocturnal environment when mice are most active, the sociability of test mice was assessed when they were reunited with their former cage mates. At the same time, the researchers tuned in to the ultrasonic chattering that mice use to communicate with each other.

For the more socially predisposed animal, gregariousness was the order of the day, says Lahvis: "A young mouse will seek social interaction and avoid isolation. The social life of these animals is a rich integration of behavior, vocalizations and positive emotional experience."

The level of social interplay of the two strains of mice, Panksepp and Lahvis note, is mirrored in their vocalizations, and the differences in vocalization between the two types of mouse also segregated with genetic background.

"We identified associations between types of mouse vocalizations and the extent of their social interactions," says Lahvis. "There is an association between high-pitched calls in mice and positive experience. The quality and quantity of the call are tightly associated with the nature of the interaction itself."

As the mice neared sexual maturity, the genetic influence on social behavior ebbed and the animals became much more responsive to social cues such as gender, according to Lahvis.

"As they get older, they take on the [behavioral] characteristics associated with gender," Lahvis explains. "The initial genetic predisposition gets masked by reproductive maturity."

This result is crucial, argue Lahvis and Panksepp, because it suggests that the genetic influences on juvenile social behavior may be quite distinct from genetic factors that affect adult social behavior, a finding the researchers suggest has great importance for understanding social evolution, as well as developing more realistic animal models of pervasive developmental disorders, such as autism.

In past research, the social capacities of rodents have been studied primarily in the context of behaviors associated with sexual reproduction, territorial defense and parental care. Those studies, say Lahvis and Panksepp, do not account for the many forms of social interaction that occur prior to sexual maturity, nor do they account for the many kinds of social groupings that occur throughout the animal kingdom and provide much more subtle benefits to an individual.

Results of the new work suggest that juvenile animals may experience different emotional states, depending upon whether they are alone or with others, and that specific genes may influence how they feel within different social contexts.

Identifying the gene or genes at play, says Lahvis, is the next step. "We now know that social motivation can be responsive to genetic factors, but we don't know what these factors are."

Garet P. Lahvis | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wisc.edu

Further reports about: Interaction Panksepp gregarious gregariousness juvenile vocalization

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Individual Receptors Caught at Work
19.10.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Rapid environmental change makes species more vulnerable to extinction
19.10.2017 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Electrode materials from the microwave oven

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

New material for digital memories of the future

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods

19.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>