Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Vanderbilt research targets chemical and biological weapon detection

29.01.2007
Vanderbilt University researchers, in conjunction with colleagues at several other institutions, are working on a project that promises significant improvement in the control of proteins for a number of uses, including the detection of chemical and biological weapons.

Real-time control of the function of single proteins by detecting and changing their shapes is the object of the new research project, called SPARTAN, which signifies Single Protein Actuation by Real-Time Transduction of Affinity in Nanospace. The project is headed by scientists at the Vanderbilt Institute for Integrative Biosystems Research and Education.

“In the area of chemical and biological agent sensors, the controllable protein is the equivalent of the transistor in microelectronics,” said John Wikswo, the Gordon A. Cain University Professor at Vanderbilt and director of the project.

“The single transistor was a technical breakthrough, but its true potential was not realized until millions of transistors were combined on individual microcircuits,” Wikswo said. “Similarly, the true potential of controllable proteins will be realized when we can combine them into large arrays that can be dynamically tuned to respond to a wide variety of different agents.”

... more about:
»Capability »Detection »Tennessee »individual »weapon

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is funding the first phase of the one-year project with $1.3 million because such a capability would provide the foundation for a new class of advanced sensors for applications, including the detection of chemical and biological weapons.

The interdisciplinary SPARTAN project brings together researchers from Vanderbilt University, University of Tennessee Space Institute, University of Texas at Austin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Proteins are a natural means to detect chemical and biological agents (CB) because many such agents are themselves proteins or small molecules that bind to proteins. Scientists already have the capability to produce proteins that can bind to, and thereby detect or deactivate, known CB agents. Now the challenge is how to respond to new and unknown agents. That is where controllable proteins come in. They could provide the basis of extremely flexible and responsive sensor systems that can rapidly identify unknown chemical and biological threats. In addition, development of such a system should significantly improve understanding of the relationship between protein structure and function.

While the idea of controlling individual proteins may seem futuristic, most of the underlying tools already exist. For some time, scientists have known that a protein’s shape determines its function. Today, understanding of the relationship between their structure, the way in which they change shape and their biological function is growing dramatically. Combine this with a number of other recent developments – the capability to design and fabricate tailored proteins, the ability to use optical spectroscopy to monitor the shape of individual proteins, plus assorted advances in nanophotonics, biophotonics, micro- and nano-fluidics and modern control theory – and the result could be an important new national resource, according to the proposal.

The project requires the combined expertise of researchers in a number of different fields:

• Vanderbilt University researchers have developed the capability to isolate and manipulate individual proteins within microfluidic and nanofluidic devices and to use nature to sort through billions of different protein possibilities to find those that bind most strongly under given conditions.

• University of Texas at Austin researchers have created highly efficient antibodies to anthrax-related biomolecules that will be used as the target proteins for initial demonstrations, have developed the means to insert organic chemicals in specific locations within proteins and have developed computer models for predicting the properties of such engineered proteins.

• University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers have synthesized a class of organic chemicals that can be specifically attached to proteins and cause them to reversibly change shape when exposed to light of different colors.

• University of Tennessee Space Institute researchers have developed custom single-molecule microscopes with multi-color lasers and advanced control electronics and a laser nano-machining capability that can produce novel nanoscale platforms for the single-protein experiments. Researchers at University of Tennessee have expertise in state-of-the-art control theory.

• Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers provide expertise and unique facilities for fabrication, characterization and imaging of nanoscale features to be used in the research.

The goal of the first phase of the project is to prove that it is possible to reversibly control the conformation of a single protein in real time. In the second phase the researchers will attempt to incorporate real-time control of protein conformation into novel technologies for the detection of chemical or biological threat agents.

David F. Salisbury | Vanderbilt University
Further information:
http://www.darpa.mil/dso/thrust/biosci/cpc.htm
http://www.vanderbilt.edu

Further reports about: Capability Detection Tennessee individual weapon

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Symbiotic bacteria: from hitchhiker to beetle bodyguard
28.04.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

nachricht Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
28.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>