Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Quitting Smoking May Be Harder If Mom Smoked During Pregnancy

26.01.2007
Quitting smoking may be more difficult for individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, according to animal research conducted by Duke University Medical Center researchers.

Prenatal exposure to nicotine is known to alter areas of the brain critical to learning, memory and reward. Scientists at the Duke Center for Nicotine and Smoking Cessation Research have discovered that these alterations may program the brain for relapse to nicotine addiction. Rodents exposed to nicotine before birth self administer more of the drug after periods of abstinence than those that had not been exposed.

The study suggests that pregnant women should quit smoking to avoid exposing their unborn children to nicotine, and that they should do so without the use of nicotine products such as patches or gums that also present a risk to the baby, the researchers said.

"Smoking during pregnancy can harm the baby in ways that extend far beyond preterm delivery or low birth weight," said lead study investigator Edward Levin, Ph.D., a professor of biological psychiatry. "It causes changes in the brain development of the baby that can last a lifetime."

... more about:
»Smoking »nicotine

Results of the study appear this week in the online issue of the journal Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. The work was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and Philip Morris USA.

Levin's team exposed pregnant rats to nicotine. Once the offspring grew to adolescence, they were allowed to self administer nicotine as often as they wanted. To self administer the drug, the rats pressed a lever that caused a dose of nicotine to be delivered intravenously. Each push of the lever was roughly equivalent to a hit from a cigarette.

The researchers studied two groups of rats: those that had been exposed to nicotine prenatally and those that had not. Initially, both groups of rats consumed nicotine at the same rates -- about ten hits per session. After four weeks, the researchers forced the rats to go "cold turkey" for a week, during which they had no access to nicotine.

Once the scientists restored access to nicotine again, they witnessed a dramatic difference in the rates at which the two groups resumed the habit. The rats that had been exposed prenatally took nearly double the nicotine hits compared with those that had not.

While the rates of smoking in the United States are declining, approximately a quarter of Americans have mothers who smoked during pregnancy, Levin said. Previous studies have shown these individuals have a higher chance of sudden infant death syndrome, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, obesity and even of becoming a lifelong smoker themselves, Levin said.

"It is easy to quit smoking -- anyone can do it, for a brief time," Levin said. "But not taking it up again -- that is the part that has proven so difficult for most people, especially those who have been exposed to nicotine before birth."

Levin and his colleagues say that different smoking cessation approaches should be taken in individuals who have been exposed to nicotine prenatally. Whether or not a person has been exposed to nicotine while in the womb becomes another part of their medical profile that helps doctors tailor treatment to the specific needs of the patient, Levin said. Some other factors shown to influence a person's ability to quit include gender, age, state of mental health and genetics, he added.

Other researchers participating in the study were Susan Lawrence, Ann Petro, Kofi Horton, Frederic J. Seidler and Theodore A. Slotkin.

Marla Vacek Broadfoot | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.duke.edu

Further reports about: Smoking nicotine

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht The birth of a new protein
20.10.2017 | University of Arizona

nachricht Building New Moss Factories
20.10.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>