Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Hopkins researchers uncover critical player in cell communication

09.10.2006
Implications for cause of rare cognitive disorder

Johns Hopkins researchers have teased out the function of a protein implicated in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a rare cognitive disorder associated with overly social behavior and lack of spatial awareness. Called TFII-I, or TF "two eye," the protein long known to help control a cell's genes also controls how much calcium a cell takes in, a function critical for all cells, including nerves in the brain. The study will be published this week in Science.

"While the previously described function of TFII-I very well also could contribute to the cognitive defects of Williams-Beuren syndrome, its role controlling calcium makes much more sense," says Stephen Desiderio, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of molecular biology and genetics and director of the Institute of Basic Biomedical Sciences at Hopkins. And, says Desiderio, others have shown that defects in a cell's ability to take in calcium can lead to other neurological and behavioral conditions.

Williams-Beuren syndrome is associated with craniofacial defects, problems with the aorta and a very specific mental retardation that causes those affected to be talkative, sociable and empathetic but at the same time have significant spatial learning defects. Those affected are highly expressive, have exceptionally strong language abilities and "can talk up a storm," for example. But at the same time, they are poor at global organization, having problems re-creating patterns in drawings. The syndrome occurs in roughly one in 25,000 births and is caused by a deletion of a small section of chromosome 7 that contains several genes, including the gene that encodes the TFII-I protein.

... more about:
»Calcium »Desiderio »Syndrome »TFII-I »defects

The discovery came after Desiderio and his team used biochemical "bait" to fish for candidate proteins that physically bind to TFII-I. The fishing expedition returned one protein known to control when and how much calcium a cell takes in.

"The partner we found in the fishing experiment and the abundance of TFII-I outside the cell nucleus led us to suspect that this protein must be doing more than regulate gene expression," says Desiderio.

Under normal conditions, calcium does not flow freely into and out of cells until a demand for it - such as a muscle contraction or nerve function -- triggers cells to take up the free floating element from their surroundings. Cells store calcium until still other signals occur to release it again.

"The finding was stunning to us because calcium is one of the most important messengers in cells," says Desiderio, "and both it and TFII-I are in every cell. That affirmed our suspicion that TFII-I could be doing something important with calcium signaling."

In one experiment, the Hopkins team knocked down the amount of TFII-I in lab-grown cells and looked for changes in calcium flow under a high-power microscope using a dye that glows when it comes in contact with calcium. A camera attached to the microscope recorded the brightness of the glow and fed that measure into a computer that calculates the amount of calcium.

Knocking down TFII-I and separately assaulting the cells with chemicals caused the cells to take up more calcium than usual.

The researchers realized that when they depleted the cells of TFII-I, the cell responded by installing more calcium channels in their surfaces that allow calcium and only calcium to enter the cell. "We think TFII-I must control calcium entry into the cell by somehow limiting the number of calcium channels at the cell's surface," says Desiderio.

"There's good evidence suggesting that the frequency and intensity of this ebb and flow of calcium can determine a cell's response to external cues," says Desiderio. "TFII-I may be a universal player in communication between cells, in the brain, the immune system and elsewhere."

Audrey Huang | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhmi.edu

Further reports about: Calcium Desiderio Syndrome TFII-I defects

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New risk factors for anxiety disorders
24.02.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers
24.02.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>