Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Gorilla susceptibility to Ebola virus: the cost of sociality

11.07.2006
By monitoring a large population of gorillas during an Ebola outbreak in the rain forest of the Republic of the Congo, researchers have found that in a few months the virus exhibited dramatic--but disproportionate--impacts on group-dwelling and solitary gorillas. The findings offer a unique glimpse into the factors affecting the threat the deadly virus poses to great apes.

The work is reported in the July 12th issue of the journal Current Biology by a team of researchers including Damien Caillaud and colleagues from the University of Montpellier and the University of Rennes, France.

Ebola virus is extremely lethal for humans and other great apes. Since 1994, the Zaïre subtype of the Ebola filovirus has been responsible for nine human outbreaks in Gabon and the Republic of the Congo; a majority of these outbreaks have originated from the handling of infected great-ape carcasses. In fact, Ebola virus has become one of the major threats to the survival of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in this region. However, the causes of outbreak among wild animals, and the way the virus spreads, remain unclear. It has been argued that the infection of apes only occurs by way of the so-called "reservoir" species (unknown, but possibly fruit bats), with ape-to-ape transmission playing only a minor role due to an insufficient rate of encounters between groups.

In the new work, the researchers studied the spread of Ebola virus in a gorilla population of Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Republic of the Congo. Social units--defined as groups and solitary males--composing this population regularly visited a forest clearing where they were studied from 2001. In all, around 400 gorillas were identified from their individual morphological characteristics. Ebola virus affected this population in 2004. During and after the outbreak, the researchers used the data on the identity of animals previously observed to estimate Ebola-induced mortality and to test the validity of different possible contamination scenarios. The authors of the study showed that transmission between gorillas was particularly important within groups and led to a very high mortality rate--97% of group-dwelling individuals. In contrast to the hypothesis expressed above, evidence suggested that transmission between social units is also likely to occur, either exclusively or in addition to reservoir-to-gorilla transmission, and the result was a mortality rate of 77% of solitary males. Overall, 95% of the population disappeared in approximately one year. From a conservation point of view, this finding is worrying because all adult female and young gorillas--on whom post-epidemic population recovery relies--live in groups.

These findings provide new insights into what is still a poorly understood disease and could shed light on the evolutionary costs experienced by primates living in groups. The authors note that thousands of gorillas have probably disappeared as a result of the Ebola outbreak studied here, and they point out that because the impact of Ebola on apes is still difficult to control, strengthened protection of gorillas and chimpanzees is needed throughout their range, especially against the other primary threats to their survival: poaching and logging.

Heidi Hardman | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.current-biology.com

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Topologische Quantenchemie
21.07.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe

nachricht Topological Quantum Chemistry
21.07.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

Im Focus: On the way to a biological alternative

A bacterial enzyme enables reactions that open up alternatives to key industrial chemical processes

The research team of Prof. Dr. Oliver Einsle at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Biochemistry has long been exploring the functioning of nitrogenase....

Im Focus: The 1 trillion tonne iceberg

Larsen C Ice Shelf rift finally breaks through

A one trillion tonne iceberg - one of the biggest ever recorded -- has calved away from the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica, after a rift in the ice,...

Im Focus: Laser-cooled ions contribute to better understanding of friction

Physics supports biology: Researchers from PTB have developed a model system to investigate friction phenomena with atomic precision

Friction: what you want from car brakes, otherwise rather a nuisance. In any case, it is useful to know as precisely as possible how friction phenomena arise –...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

The technology with a feel for feelings

12.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA looks to solar eclipse to help understand Earth's energy system

21.07.2017 | Earth Sciences

Stanford researchers develop a new type of soft, growing robot

21.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Vortex photons from electrons in circular motion

21.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>