Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Symbiotic fungus does not depend on fungus-farming ants for reproduction, researchers say

28.06.2006
Fungus-farming ants around the world cultivate essentially the same fungus and are not as critical to the reproduction of the fungi as previously believed, biologists at The University of Texas at Austin have discovered.

Fungus-farming ants are dependent on cultivating fungus gardens for food, and it has been widely believed the fungi also evolved dependence on the ants for their dispersal and reproduction. When young ant queens establish new colonies, they take a start-up crop of fungi with them from their parental garden.


A leaf-cutting ant queen (Acromyrmex coronatus) is sheltered in a chamber deep inside of her fungus garden, made of leaf fragments and strands of a symbiotic fungus. The garden was grown from a few strands brought by the queen on her mating flight from the maternal garden. After the mating flight, the queen never leaves her garden metropolis. Credit: Alexander Mikheyev and Barrett Klein

Graduate student Alexander Mikheyev and Dr. Ulrich Mueller, professor of integrative biology, have now found that the fungi reproduce sexually and disperse widely without the aid of their ant farmers.

Different genera of the ants, it turns out, are essentially cultivating the same fungus across wide geographical areas.

The scientists' finding provides a new perspective on coevolutionary processes. Coevolution, like that between honeybees and the flowers they pollinate, occurs when two or more species influence each other's evolution over time. Mikheyev says that two species don't necessary need to have a very specific, one-to-one relationship in order to coevolve.

"This shows that coevolution can proceed without specificity at the species level," said Mikheyev. "It has been believed that mutualistic interactions, as well as parasitic ones, are very specific and one-to-one. We are beginning to realize that this is not necessary for long-term coevolutionary stability, with the leaf-cutting ants being a dramatic example."

The research was published June 26 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"Previously, the fungi were thought to be passive players, moved around by the ants," said Mikheyev. "We show that the power of fungal dispersal is probably beyond ant control."

Observations of the fungi reproducing sexually--producing a fruiting body or mushroom--deep inside an ant nest are extremely rare. So the scientists, in collaboration with Dr. Patrick Abbot at Vanderbilt University, read the signatures of sexual reproduction in the fungal genes. They studied fungi cultivated by leaf-cutting ants, well known fungus farmers that bring pieces of leaves back to their nest to use as a growth medium for their fungi.

Genetic analysis revealed that the fungi are still using the cellular machinery necessary for sexual reproduction, which would have been lost or changed had the fungi become completely dependent on asexual, clonal reproduction through their ant farmers.

Studying the fungus gardens of an introduced population of leaf-cutting ants on the French Caribbean island of Guadeloupe, the scientists also found that the fungal genes have been recombining, a sign they are reproducing with one another.

"The fungi are not completely domesticated and under the strict control of the ants," said Mueller. "Instead, the fungi occasionally have a life of their own, dispersing independently of the ants and exchanging genes with other ant-cultivated fungi."

Mikheyev, Mueller and Abbot also compared leaf-cutter ants and their fungal crops from Cuba to populations of ants and fungi from Central and South America. Though the Cuban ants have been isolated from mainland populations for many years, genetic analysis showed their fungal crops have been exchanging genes with mainland fungi populations.

"The fungi are able to cross geographical boundaries too great for the ants, intermingling genes between mainland and Cuban populations, possibly through airborne spores," said Mikheyev.

Ulrich Mueller | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.utexas.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Cryo-electron microscopy achieves unprecedented resolution using new computational methods
24.03.2017 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

nachricht How cheetahs stay fit and healthy
24.03.2017 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Argon is not the 'dope' for metallic hydrogen

24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>