Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Genes hunters tracking the tumour

09.05.2006
2nd IFOM-IEO Campus Meeting on Cancer

What is the best strategy to determine the specific function of a gene? Certainly a good idea is to eliminate the gene and see what kind of effects this move has on the whole organism. With this goal in mind, the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, the Whitehead Institute and the Broad Institute at MIT and Harvard – together with a consortium of five bioinformatics companies (Bristol-Myers, Novartis Pharma, Eli Lilly, Sigma, Astra Zeneca) – are about concluding the establishment of a technological platform that will allow the scientists to investigate the specific role of some genes in the onset of tumours. They will accomplish this goal by selectively inhibiting the genes’ activity. This ambitious and important project was presented yesterday by William C. Hahn, from the Dana-Farber and the Broad Institute, during the 2nd IFOM-IEO Campus Meeting on Cancer.

“We are building up – says Hahn, who leads the project – what is technically called an RNAi library, a collection of interfering RNAs that work according to a predator-prey rationale. In other words, we have generated a huge assembly of hunter-molecules, so far around 104,000, that are able to target a prey: some 22,000 human and murine genes.”

When these molecules are introduced in the cells they can selectively inactivate a gene by interfering with its activity. How? First of all the hunter spots its prey: the RNA molecule produced from a specific gene that carries the instructions for the synthesis of a protein. Then it binds the prey and destroys it. “At this point – details the scientist – we check the outcome and examine what are the changes that this loss-of-function determines. So far we have identified a set of genes whose role is still unknown. When we combine this information with other data obtained with different analytical approaches we should be able to speed up the procedures necessary to proceed from the singling out of a target and the production of adequate drugs.”

Up to now by using the interfering-inactivation technique the scientists have detected a number of genes, and a hundred of these turned out to control mitosis: a process of cell division which results in the production of two identical daughter cells. “Some of them were already known – pinpoints Hahn – but others were identified for the first time thanks to this technique. Our next goal is to identify genes that are involved in the onset of some tumours and to characterize their role in detail”. Further targets are also two classes of enzymes – called kinases and phosphatases – involved in some steps of the neoplastic transformation.

An important feature of the platform created at Harvard and MIT is the fact that not only the results of this research, but also materials, methods and the newly-built molecules will be accessible at no cost to the whole scientific community. “This approach – explains Hahn – stems from the spirit that animates the Broad Institute, and is the true spirit that we should expect in all kinds of science.”

Francesca Noceti | alfa
Further information:
http://www.semm.it/meeting/cancer06/
http://www.ifom-ieo-campus.it

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Oestrogen regulates pathological changes of bones via bone lining cells
28.07.2017 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien

nachricht Programming cells with computer-like logic
27.07.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Abrupt motion sharpens x-ray pulses

Spectrally narrow x-ray pulses may be “sharpened” by purely mechanical means. This sounds surprisingly, but a team of theoretical and experimental physicists developed and realized such a method. It is based on fast motions, precisely synchronized with the pulses, of a target interacting with the x-ray light. Thereby, photons are redistributed within the x-ray pulse to the desired spectral region.

A team of theoretical physicists from the MPI for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg has developed a novel method to intensify the spectrally broad x-ray...

Im Focus: Physicists Design Ultrafocused Pulses

Physicists working with researcher Oriol Romero-Isart devised a new simple scheme to theoretically generate arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic fields. This new tool could be used for precise sensing and in microscopy.

Microwaves, heat radiation, light and X-radiation are examples for electromagnetic waves. Many applications require to focus the electromagnetic fields to...

Im Focus: Carbon Nanotubes Turn Electrical Current into Light-emitting Quasi-particles

Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers

Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...

Im Focus: Flexible proximity sensor creates smart surfaces

Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.

At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...

Im Focus: 3-D scanning with water

3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects

A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New 3-D imaging reveals how human cell nucleus organizes DNA and chromatin of its genome

28.07.2017 | Health and Medicine

Heavy metals in water meet their match

28.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Oestrogen regulates pathological changes of bones via bone lining cells

28.07.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>