Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists learn more about how viruses reproduce, spread

10.04.2006
Biochemists at Wake Forest University School of Medicine have made a surprising discovery about the inner workings of a powerful virus – a discovery that they hope could one day lead to better vaccines or anti-virus medications.

Reporting in the April issue of the Journal of Virology, the researchers have identified a protein that plays an important role in the ability of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to invade healthy cells and reproduce itself. The finding could play a role in vaccine development and also help scientists develop anti-viral agents to stop similar viruses in their tracks.

Although VSV infects animals, it is not a human pathogen. Nevertheless, scientists study it because of its similarity to viruses such as Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever viruses, as well as rabies virus. "VSV is a good model of a variety of other viruses," said John Connor, Ph.D., a research assistant professor of biochemistry. "Our research has given us a better understanding of how viruses like these are able to do the nasty things they do."

The scientists set out to study the role of a protein known as "matrix," which is produced by VSV. They suspected matrix was important in how VSV is assembled, but unexpectedly discovered the matrix protein is critical in how the virus reproduces and spreads. When they altered the matrix protein, they weakened the virus’ ability to reproduce. The finding has several important implications, Connor said.

Normally, VSV is extremely powerful, with the ability to shut down a cell’s system for making proteins. VSV then takes over the cell’s protein-making machinery and makes its own proteins so it can replicate and spread. The scientists were able to weaken this power by altering the matrix protein, so that VSV cannot make as much protein and does not reproduce as well.

Weakened viruses such as this are often used to make vaccines because they are less likely to be harmful. Currently, another weakened form of VSV is being used for a HIV vaccine that is being tested in humans. To make the vaccine, scientists started with the weakened VSV virus and added a protein from the HIV virus so that VSV "expresses" or makes a fragment of the HIV virus. In theory, when people are inoculated with the vaccine, they will develop antibodies to the HIV protein, and if they are exposed to the actual HIV virus, their bodies will neutralize it and kill it before it infects them.

In all, several weakened forms of VSV have been developed and at least two are currently being tested in HIV vaccines. If they don’t prove effective, vaccine developers can turn to one of the others, including the mutant VSV virus developed by Connor and colleagues.

"Right now, there’s no way of knowing which way of weakening the virus will make the best vaccine," Connor said.

In addition to its potential for vaccine development, the new finding about VSV also provides basic information about how the virus shuts downs a cell’s protein making-abilities and dominates the process.

"We always knew this happened, but the process was like a black box," said Connor. "Now, we know that the matrix protein is involved and is incredibly important in virus reproduction. This pushes forward our knowledge of how this virus is so effective at replicating."

Could the finding about matrix be used to weaken other types of viruses? The scientists aren’t sure, yet. "It’s a strong possibility that every virus will have an Achilles’ heel like this, where they need the function of a viral protein to make lots of virus," said Connor.

Karen Richardson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wfubmc.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Bacteria as pacemaker for the intestine
22.11.2017 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

nachricht Researchers identify how bacterium survives in oxygen-poor environments
22.11.2017 | Columbia University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Corporate coworking as a driver of innovation

22.11.2017 | Business and Finance

PPPL scientists deliver new high-resolution diagnostic to national laser facility

22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Quantum optics allows us to abandon expensive lasers in spectroscopy

22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>