Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

UCLA scientists discover immune response to HIV differs, even in identical twins

08.12.2005


In findings illustrating the difficulty of developing an AIDS vaccine, UCLA AIDS Institute researchers report the immune systems in two HIV-positive identical twins responded to the infection in different ways.



Detailed in the Dec. 5 issue of the peer-reviewed Journal of Virology, the findings show that the body’s defenses against the virus are random rather than genetically determined.

The researchers followed the cases of male twins who were infected shortly after their 1983 births in Los Angeles by blood transfusions administered from the same donor at the same time. Infected with the same strain of the virus, the twins continue to live in the Los Angeles area and grew up exposed to the same environmental forces.


Yet their T-cell receptors (TCR) reacted differently in each twin, showing that the body’s defense response was random--and unpredictable. TCRs play an important role in the immune system by binding viruses and other antigens to receptors on their surface, killing the invader. HIV escapes this action by changing shape so that it does not fit into those receptors.

"These boys are as similar as two humans can be, yet we see differences in how they fight the virus," said Dr. Paul Krogstad, professor of pediatrics and pharmacology, and one of the researchers. "That’s one more thing that makes it difficult to develop a vaccine for everyone."

When a virus invades a body, the cellular immune response targets small parts of proteins in the virus. This targeting mechanism itself is genetically determined. ". The virus tries to escape that immune response by mutating and changing shape.

The twins’ targeting of the HIV was remarkably similar 17 years after infection yet their overall TCR characteristics were highly divergent. The finding, demonstrates that the interaction between their immune systems and the virus was random and unpredictable--indicating that a "one size fits all" vaccine may not be possible.

"If the goal is to develop a vaccine, our findings suggestthis may not be so straightforward," said Dr. Otto Yang, associate professor of infectious diseases at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, and the study’s lead researcher.

According to the UCLA researchers, the results of this study have broader implications, and could apply to other viruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), a herpes virus that causes opportunistic infections in immunosuppressed individuals, and hepatitis C, the latter being similar to HIV in both its changeable and chronic nature.

The study represented collaboration with other UCLA investigators and with Joseph Church of Children’s Hospital Los Angeles and the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California. Other researchers from the UCLA AIDS Institute and the David Geffen School of Medicine who contributed to the study are Ryan Kilpatrick, Ayub Ali, Yongzhi Geng, M. Scott Killian, Rachel Lubong Sabado, Hwee Ng, Jeffrey Suen, Yvonne Bryson, Beth D. Jamieson; and Christina M.R. Kitchen, associate professor of biostatistics, UCLA School of Public Health.

Enrique Rivero | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.mednet.ucla.edu
http://jvi.asm.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Nesting aids make agricultural fields attractive for bees
20.07.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht The Kitchen Sponge – Breeding Ground for Germs
20.07.2017 | Hochschule Furtwangen

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

Im Focus: On the way to a biological alternative

A bacterial enzyme enables reactions that open up alternatives to key industrial chemical processes

The research team of Prof. Dr. Oliver Einsle at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Biochemistry has long been exploring the functioning of nitrogenase....

Im Focus: The 1 trillion tonne iceberg

Larsen C Ice Shelf rift finally breaks through

A one trillion tonne iceberg - one of the biggest ever recorded -- has calved away from the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica, after a rift in the ice,...

Im Focus: Laser-cooled ions contribute to better understanding of friction

Physics supports biology: Researchers from PTB have developed a model system to investigate friction phenomena with atomic precision

Friction: what you want from car brakes, otherwise rather a nuisance. In any case, it is useful to know as precisely as possible how friction phenomena arise –...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

The technology with a feel for feelings

12.07.2017 | Event News

Leipzig HTP-Forum discusses "hydrothermal processes" as a key technology for a biobased economy

12.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers create new technique for manipulating polarization of terahertz radiation

20.07.2017 | Information Technology

High-tech sensing illuminates concrete stress testing

20.07.2017 | Materials Sciences

First direct observation and measurement of ultra-fast moving vortices in superconductors

20.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>