Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

UCI researchers create new technique for speeding development of vaccines against infectious diseases

25.01.2005


Each spot on the microchip is a different protein. The bright colors indicate reactivity with serum antibodies.


Research responds to need for protection against potential bioweapons

A new technique devised by UC Irvine researchers can greatly facilitate the development of vaccines against infectious diseases such as smallpox, malaria and tuberculosis. Because the new technique can synthesize a large number of proteins very quickly, it has potential to accelerate vaccine development, particularly crucial in the fight against bioterrorism.

The technique is based on “polymerase chain reaction,” or PCR, and enables the rapid discovery of antigens for vaccines by allowing hundreds of proteins to be processed simultaneously using ordinary laboratory procedures. This new method allows the expression of 384 individual genes – pieces of DNA that contain instructions for making proteins – from a microorganism in just one week. Traditional methods take weeks to produce one protein at a time.



The UCI technique involves loading a microchip with every protein from an infectious microorganism such as smallpox, tuberculosis or malaria. When people infected with the disease react to some of the proteins included in the microchip, laser technology is used to identify these proteins for potential use in vaccines.

The researchers describe their technique in the Jan. 18, 2005 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. “Technologies today are not able to quickly process large amounts of data that arrive in the form of genome sequences from many human pathogens,” said D. Huw Davies, lead author of the paper and associate project scientist in UCI’s Center for Virus Research. “Our technique addresses and removes this bottleneck. Remarkably, in only ten weeks, we can make every protein of an organism such as the tuberculosis bacterium – which has 3,900 genes.”

The researchers used their technique to identify a unique set of 11 proteins among a total of 200 proteins that make up the live virus that is used to vaccinate against smallpox today. Humans react strongly only to these 11 proteins, explained Philip Felgner, principal investigator of the research project and director of the proteomics laboratory within the Center for Virus Research. “Our method allows us to quickly identify which proteins are responsible for the protective immune response,” said Felgner, a co-author of the PNAS paper.
Scientists currently consider developing a safe vaccine to be the best way to blunt a bioterrorist threat against smallpox and other dangerous organisms that terrorists can use as weapons. “The existing live-virus vaccine against smallpox produces unacceptable side effects such as allergic reactions, sores, heart inflammation and angina,” Felgner said. “For a vaccine to be an effective defense against bioterrorism, however, it needs also to be safe. With our method, researchers can arrive very quickly at good vaccine candidates that are also extremely safe.”

The research, supported by grants from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, was conducted in Felgner’s proteomics laboratory. The laboratory belongs to a group of UCI biodefense laboratories developing vaccines and other countermeasures that target infectious microorganisms.

Additional co-authors of the PNAS paper are Xiaowu Liang, Jenny E. Hernandez, Arlo Randall, Siddiqua Hirst, Yunxiang Mu, Kimberly M. Romero, Toai T. Nguyen, Mina Kalantari-Dehaghi, Pierre Baldi and Luis P. Villarreal of UCI, as well as Shane Crotty of the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology.

UCI’s Center for Virus Research in the School of Biological Sciences seeks to foster interdisciplinary scholarship, training and research among UCI faculty by using molecular virology as a foundation for the creation of scientific resources. The center also promotes university-industry collaborations. Current research at the center includes vaccine antigen discovery and the testing of vaccines that use the discovered antigens.

About the University of California, Irvine: The University of California, Irvine is a top-ranked public university dedicated to research, scholarship and community service. Founded in 1965, UCI is among the fastest-growing University of California campuses, with more than 24,000 undergraduate and graduate students and about 1,400 faculty members. The second-largest employer in dynamic Orange County, UCI contributes an annual economic impact of $3 billion.

Iqbal Pittalwala | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uci.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Newly designed molecule binds nitrogen
23.02.2018 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Atomic Design by Water
23.02.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Attoseconds break into atomic interior

A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.

In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...

Im Focus: Good vibrations feel the force

A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.

By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...

Im Focus: Developing reliable quantum computers

International research team makes important step on the path to solving certification problems

Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...

Im Focus: In best circles: First integrated circuit from self-assembled polymer

For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.

In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Basque researchers turn light upside down

23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Finnish research group discovers a new immune system regulator

23.02.2018 | Health and Medicine

Attoseconds break into atomic interior

23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>