After a break in antiretroviral drug therapy in HIV-positive patients, the virus rebounds and begins to multiply. While this was feared to destroy, perhaps irreversibly, patient HIV-specific CD4+ T cells that are preferentially infected by the virus, it has now be shown to actually boost HIV-specific T cell production and activation, thereby boosting the immune response to the virus.
Scheduled interruption and resumption of antiretroviral treatment of HIV-positive patients has generated hopes of reducing drug toxicities, costs, and total treatment time. However there has been concern regarding how this on and off cycling of drug therapy effects viral replication and the patients ongoing immune response to viral infection. While it was implied that even at high viral loads a small population of these HIV-specific CD4+ T cells remained, they have been difficult to quantify.
Rodney Phillips and colleagues from the University of Oxford developed a highly sensitive technique to visualize, quantify, and track the HIV-specific CD4+ T cell population in patients with early-stage HIV infection who were given a short, fixed course of antiretroviral therapy. They found that return of viral replication after cessation of treatment does not destroy this important T cell population – their numbers were in fact comparable to the numbers observed during therapy. Furthermore, the turnover of these virus-specific cells was increased and the CD4+ T cells were prompted to mature into what are known as effector cells, capable of exerting an immune function that helps coordinate other cells of the immune system to eliminate the virus.
Brooke Grindlinger | EurekAlert!
Programming cells with computer-like logic
27.07.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard
Identified the component that allows a lethal bacteria to spread resistance to antibiotics
27.07.2017 | Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)
Physicists working with researcher Oriol Romero-Isart devised a new simple scheme to theoretically generate arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic fields. This new tool could be used for precise sensing and in microscopy.
Microwaves, heat radiation, light and X-radiation are examples for electromagnetic waves. Many applications require to focus the electromagnetic fields to...
Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers
Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...
Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.
At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...
3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects
A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...
Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.
For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...
26.07.2017 | Event News
21.07.2017 | Event News
19.07.2017 | Event News
27.07.2017 | Life Sciences
27.07.2017 | Life Sciences
27.07.2017 | Health and Medicine