Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New findings in innate immunity may lead to treatments for atherosclerosis

26.11.2004


Scientists are one step closer to deciphering the molecular signaling process controlling innate immunity with the discovery that a molecule called IRAK1 regulates the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Because atherosclerosis patients often have elevated IL-10 levels, IRAK1 may be a viable target for developing therapeutics for atherosclerosis. The research appears as the "Paper of the Week" in the December 3 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry, an American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology journal.



Innate immunity is the body’s first response to infection, and it plays a major role in regulating infection, inflammation, cell growth, and apoptosis. During an innate immune reaction, macrophages, dendritic cells, and epithelial cells use a set of transmembrane receptors called Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to initiate signaling cascades. "TLRs can sense diverse environmental cues and send signals downstream to a family of interleukin-1 receptor associated kinases (IRAKs). These IRAKs then activate and/or regulate specific cytokine gene expression," explains Dr. Liwu Li of the Wake Forest University School of Medicine.

However, the specificity of the TLR signaling process is not clearly understood. "In the past," says Dr. Li, "it was thought that all IRAKs may play a somewhat redundant role in regulating the nuclear transcription factor NFêB and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta and TNFalpha." However, mice that lack IRAK1 can still activate NFêB, suggesting that IRAK1 may be involved in other activities.


Dr. Li and his colleagues discovered that IRAK1 actually activates a molecule called Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3, or Stat3, which in turn activates expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The scientists also found that IRAK1 can translocate into the nucleus and regulate the nuclear transcription of proteins. "Our finding sets IRAK1 apart from other IRAKs and elucidates a novel pathway in innate immunity regulation," says Dr. Li.

Because atherosclerosis patients usually have elevated serum IL-10 levels, the scientists also looked at IRAK1 levels in blood from atherosclerosis patients. They found that IRAK1 is modified and localized to the nucleus in these patients, indicating a possible link between IRAK1 regulation and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. "Inflammation and infection have been increasingly shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis and/or resolution of atherosclerosis," explains Dr. Li. "Anti- inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 may serve as a self protective mechanism to prevent excessive inflammation and contribute to plaque stability. Indeed, patients with higher IL-10 serum levels have a better chance of recovery. Therefore, elevated IRAK1 modification and IL-10 levels observed in atherosclerosis patients may be a compensatory and self-protective mechanism."

Manipulating innate immunity may eventually be a therapeutic strategy for treating atherosclerosis. "Our study, as well as others, indicates that innate immunity alteration plays a critical role in either the pathogenesis or resolution of atherosclerosis. IRAK1 may provide a viable target for developing therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. Compounds or strategies directed at preventing or enhancing IRAK1 modification and nuclear entry may hold great promise in treating atherosclerosis," concludes Dr. Li.

Besides atherosclerosis, alterations in innate immunity can cause diabetes, cancer, and numerous other inflammatory disorders. Further understanding of the innate immunity process may lead to development of therapies for these diseases as well.

Nicole Kresge | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.asbmb.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New type of photosynthesis discovered
17.06.2018 | Imperial College London

nachricht New ID pictures of conducting polymers discover a surprise ABBA fan
17.06.2018 | University of Warwick

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

Im Focus: Photoexcited graphene puzzle solved

A boost for graphene-based light detectors

Light detection and control lies at the heart of many modern device applications, such as smartphone cameras. Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for...

Im Focus: Water is not the same as water

Water molecules exist in two different forms with almost identical physical properties. For the first time, researchers have succeeded in separating the two forms to show that they can exhibit different chemical reactivities. These results were reported by researchers from the University of Basel and their colleagues in Hamburg in the scientific journal Nature Communications.

From a chemical perspective, water is a molecule in which a single oxygen atom is linked to two hydrogen atoms. It is less well known that water exists in two...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A sprinkle of platinum nanoparticles onto graphene makes brain probes more sensitive

15.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

100 % Organic Farming in Bhutan – a Realistic Target?

15.06.2018 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Perovskite-silicon solar cell research collaboration hits 25.2% efficiency

15.06.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>