Scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, have created a model that predicts the survival of follicular lymphoma patients based on the molecular characteristics of their tumors at diagnosis. The model is based on two sets of genes--called survival-associated signatures--whose activity was found to be associated with good or poor prognosis for patients with the cancer. The scientists results, to be published in the November 19, 2004, New England Journal of Medicine*, suggest that immune cells infiltrating follicular lymphoma tumors have an important impact on survival--both signatures came from such immune cells.
The progression rate of follicular lymphoma, the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, varies widely. "In some patients the disease progresses slowly over many years, whereas in others progression is rapid, with the cancer transforming into aggressive lymphoma and leading to early death," explained principle investigator Louis M. Staudt, M.D., Ph.D., of NCIs Center for Cancer Research. "Understanding the molecular causes of such differences in survival could provide a more accurate method to determine patient risk, which could be used to guide treatment and may suggest new therapeutic approaches."
To create their model, Staudt and associates used follicular lymphoma biopsies taken from 191 untreated patients. The biopsies were taken between 1974 and 2001 and came from North American and European institutions that are part of the NCI-sponsored Lymphoma/Leukemia Molecular Profiling Project**. Following their biopsies, all patients received standard treatments. The NCI scientists examined their subsequent medical records to determine survival. Biopsies were divided into two groups balanced for survival and institution: 95 went into a group used to uncover gene expression patterns associated with survival; the other 95 were used to test the predictive power of these patterns.
NCI Press Officers | EurekAlert!
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At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
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Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
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Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
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Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
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