They still dont have a personality, and theyre waiting for the maturity call. Stem cells in our bone marrow usually develop into blood cells, replenishing our blood system. However, in states of emergency, the destiny of some of these stem cells may change: They can become virtually any type of cell – liver cells, muscle cells, nerve cells – responding to the bodys needs.
Prof. Tsvee Lapidot and Dr. Orit Kollet of the Weizmann Institutes Immunology Department have found how the liver, when damaged, sends a cry for help to these stem cells. "When the liver becomes damaged, it signals to stem cells in the bone marrow, which rush to it and help in its repair – as liver cells," says Lapidot. His research team has found that certain molecules that govern normal development of the liver become overproduced when it is damaged, signaling to the stem cells in the bone marrow to come to the site. The scientists were able to pinpoint the signaling molecules – HGF, MMP-9 and SDF-1– and describe the homing process. HGF is involved in liver cell development and, in irregular cases, can play a role in cancer metastasis. MMP-9 assists cell migration from the blood system into various types of tissue, including liver tissue. SDF-1 is a molecule that stem cells are attracted to. The scientists discovered that large amounts of HGF and MMP-9, when overproduced in the damaged liver, enter the blood flow and increase the sensitivity of stem cells in the bone marrow to SDF-1. Suddenly able to sense SDF-1s calling signal from the liver (which itself is amplified due to increased production and distribution of SDF-1), the stem cells migrate from the bone marrow into the blood and navigate their way to the liver. The findings could lead to new insights into organ repair and transplants, especially liver-related ones. They may also uncover a whole new stock of stem cells that can under certain conditions become liver cells. Until a few years ago only embryonic stem cells were thought to possess such capabilities. Understanding how stem cells in the bone marrow turn into liver cells could one day be a great boon to liver repair as well as an alternative to the use of embryonic stem cells.
Alex Smith | EurekAlert!
Newly designed molecule binds nitrogen
23.02.2018 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg
Atomic Design by Water
23.02.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH
A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.
In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.
By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...
Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
23.02.2018 | Health and Medicine
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy