If you sniff a rose this Valentines Day, your brain will recognize almost a hundred different molecules that collectively give the flower its heady scent-but how? Scientists are now discovering how the brain identifies odors and their mysterious counterparts, the pheromones. New research, to be presented today at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting and forthcoming in the journal, Science, explains how the mouse brain is exquisitely tuned to recognize another mouses pheromone cocktail.
Researchers say that most smells hover about 10 inches off the ground, placing the human nose at a disadvantage among those of most other mammals. Nonetheless, when smells do reach the neurons inside the nose, the human brain can distinguish from among the thousands of chemicals that make up odors, and scientists are beginning to understand just how the process works.
In the last decade, the nose has been revealed as the site of a large family of sensory neurons, each of which specializes in a particular smell. Since this discovery, researchers have studied the olfactory system in rodents, following the axons that extend from neurons into the rodent brain. Their research shows that the axons from neurons with receptors for the same odor molecule congregate in the one or two glomeruli that are reserved for those axons. Glomeruli, which contain only axon terminals, are specialized structures in the olfactory bulb; the rodent brain has 2000 of them. By studying "odor maps" that show activity in certain glomeruli in response to different smells, Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Lawrence C. Katz of Duke University has found that each odor results in a pattern or "fingerprint," which humans and other mammals seem to use to distinguish from among different smells.
Monica Amarelo | EurekAlert!
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Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
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26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
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