Like a well-trained soldier with honed survival skills, the common bacterium, Group A Streptococcus (GAS), sometimes can endure battle with our inborn (innate) immune system and cause widespread disease. By investigating the ability of combat-ready white blood cells (WBCs) to ingest and kill GAS, researchers have discovered new insights into how this disease-causing bacteria can evade destruction by the immune system. The research is being published this week in the Online Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,USA at http://www.pnas.org/papbyrecent.shtml.
Frank DeLeo, Ph.D., tenure-track investigator in the Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Rocky Mountain Laboratories in Hamilton, MT, directed the study. "This is the first genome-scale look at GAS genes that are differentially expressed during interaction with the human innate immune system," he says. "We are excited about our findings and how they may lead to further investigation of therapeutics that can protect us from this major human pathogen." According to Dr. DeLeo, this type of study is the next logical application of microbial genomics.
An estimated 15 million new cases of noninvasive GAS infections occur in the United States each year, with a direct health care cost of $2 billion. The noninvasive and milder types of infection, primarily strep throat and skin infections, occur mostly in children between the ages of 5 and 14 years old. Elementary school-aged children are at highest risk for noninvasive disease. In 2000, the reported incidence of the more serious invasive GAS disease, which includes streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), cellulitis, pneumonia, bacteremia and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease), was 8,800 cases and 1,000 deaths. The elderly, immunosuppressed, persons with chronic cardiac or respiratory disease or diabetes, African Americans, American Indians and persons with skin lesions (for example, children with chickenpox and intravenous drug users) have increased risk for GAS invasive disease.
Walter Mitton | EurekAlert!
When Air is in Short Supply - Shedding light on plant stress reactions when oxygen runs short
23.03.2017 | Institut für Pflanzenbiochemie
WPI team grows heart tissue on spinach leaves
23.03.2017 | Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
23.03.2017 | Life Sciences
23.03.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
23.03.2017 | Earth Sciences