Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

DNA repair mechanisms are concentrated in the active parts of the genome

01.10.2002


Less than 10% of the human genome contains coded information in the form of genes. The 30,000-40,000 genes in the genome are found grouped in discrete regions of the chromosomes. Chemical agents and radiation habitually cause a large variety of injuries to the DNA which interferes in many cell processes, like transcription and replication, and this can cause a loss of control of cell division and the appearance of tumours. In order to avoid this, the human genome contains more than 130 DNA repair genes which are coded by proteins that constantly scrutinise the genome and seek out damage in order to eliminate it.



A team of researchers from the Mutation Group at the Department of Genetics and Microbiology from the Autonomous University of Barcelona, together with investigators from Leiden University Medical Centre in Leiden (Holland), have discovered that the most important part of the human genome, that is to say the zones where the genes are grouped, are subject to a special and preferential control by the repair mechanisms. In this way, the presence of mutations and the appearance of cancer in the most active genes are prevented.

In order to determine how the repair mechanisms act in the whole human genome, the UAB scientists have studied lines of cells derived from the skin of healthy people and from patients deficient in the repair of DNA damage produced by solar radiation, a genetic disorder called xeroderma pigmentosa. In those affected by this disorder (popularised by the characters of the children in the film The Others), the repair mechanisms do not act when ultraviolet light shines on the skin cells, which causes them to have an accumulation of mutations and, therefore, an extremely high incidence of melanoma (skin cancer). The scientists have been able to observe how the repair of damage caused by ultraviolet rays is concentrated in the richest regions of the genome and, therefore, there is preferential repair of the most important part of the genome, called the transcriptome. By way of example, chromosome 19, the densest and most genetically active, shows high levels of repair, whereas in chromosome 4, one of the poorest in genes, there is practically no preferential repair of the mutations induced by ultraviolet light.

Octavi López Coronado | alfa

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht More genes are active in high-performance maize
19.01.2018 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht How plants see light
19.01.2018 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Artificial agent designs quantum experiments

On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. In initial experiments, the system has independently (re)discovered experimental techniques that are nowadays standard in modern quantum optical laboratories. This shows how machines could play a more creative role in research in the future.

We carry smartphones in our pockets, the streets are dotted with semi-autonomous cars, but in the research laboratory experiments are still being designed by...

Im Focus: Scientists decipher key principle behind reaction of metalloenzymes

So-called pre-distorted states accelerate photochemical reactions too

What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...

Im Focus: The first precise measurement of a single molecule's effective charge

For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.

Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...

Im Focus: Paradigm shift in Paris: Encouraging an holistic view of laser machining

At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.

No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...

Im Focus: Room-temperature multiferroic thin films and their properties

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.

Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

10th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Münster, 10-11 April 2018

08.01.2018 | Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Let the good tubes roll

19.01.2018 | Materials Sciences

How cancer metastasis happens: Researchers reveal a key mechanism

19.01.2018 | Health and Medicine

Meteoritic stardust unlocks timing of supernova dust formation

19.01.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>