Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Early Bird or Night Owl?

06.06.2008
Novel technique used at Cheltenham Science Festival to measure activity of circadian rhythm genes

Researchers from the School of Medicine, Swansea University took samples from visitors to the Cheltenham Science Festival yesterday (Thursday 5 June 2008) to identify their natural sleep-wake pattern.

“The novel technique we have developed at Swansea is entirely non-invasive, so we can use it at a public event”, explains Sarah Forbes-Robertson, Research Fellow at the School of Medicine, Swansea University. “Previously you needed to take blood samples to obtain the RNA (ribonucleic acid) needed for this type of research. Our technique allows us to get a useable sample just by swabbing the inside of an individual’s cheek.”

A number of different genes control an individual’s ‘natural’ pattern of wake and sleep – otherwise known as their circadian rhythm. The levels of RNA produced by these different genes indicate how active they are at different times of day. One gene known as Per2 produces the highest levels of RNA at around 4am, and is the gene that is associated with sleeping. The gene examined at the Cheltenham Science Festival event, known as REV-ERB, works in opposition to Per2 having its peak activity at around 4pm, and is thought by researchers at Swansea to be the gene associated with wakefulness. Samples were taken at the start (4pm) and end (5pm) of the event at the Cheltenham Science Festival, and are being analysed by the Swansea researchers. Results will be made available to individuals online.

... more about:
»PER2 »RNA »Swansea »activity »circadian »rhythm »sample

“To get a full and accurate picture of someone’s natural circadian rhythm you would need to take samples four hourly over a full day and night, and also look at all the genes involved,” explains Sarah. “But by taking samples at 4pm and 5pm to assess the activity of the REV-ERB gene, we will be able to see if patterns of peak gene expression are shifted forwards or back in time from the norm of 4pm. If your peak is earlier than 4pm it would indicate that you are a natural early bird, if you peak later than 5pm then you are more of a night owl.”

The novel technique for measuring gene expression is currently only being used by Professor Johannes Thome’s research team in the Department of Neuroscience and Molecular Psychiatry at Swansea, but is opening up this field of research as individuals can take part in research whilst continuing with their normal day and night activities. The technique is the first that allows researchers to look at RNA using these mouth swabs, rather than DNA.

One key finding from this work is that humans differ significantly to mice. “It has always been assumed that human genes would work in the same way as those for mice where two genes Per2 and Bmal1 work in opposition, Per2 peaking for sleep and Bmal1 peaking for wakefulness. However, in humans these genes appear to work together with both peaking around the same time,” explains Sarah.

The researchers are now looking at various conditions such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder to see if this may be linked to disturbed circadian rhythms. Further work is being carried out to identify if the activity of these genes can be permanently altered through unnatural sleep patterns – in shift work, for example. The technique will also allow researchers to assess whether jet lag cures, such as melatonin tablets, actually do anything to alter gene expression.

“Gene expression can be altered by external factors, such as jet lag”, says Sarah. “One interesting finding is that food affects gene expression, so after lunch Per2 has a small peak, leading to that post lunch slump.”

The non-invasive technique for measuring gene expression may also have applications in other areas of research. “It has been suggested that chemotherapy for cancer patients may be far more effective if administered at certain times of the day. Our techniques might be able to confirm this and explain why”, says Sarah.

Curiosity has of course led Sarah to research her own circadian rhythms. “My peak of Per2 - the ‘sleep’ gene - is at 6am rather than at the usual 4am. So I really do have a genetic excuse for not being able to manage early morning meetings!”

Event Details:
Clocking On
Cheltenham Town Hall
Thursday 5 June 2008 4-5pm
£6 (£5)
Tickets: www.cheltenhamfestivals.com
Box Office: 01242 227979

Sallie Robins | alfa
Further information:
http://www.cheltenhamfestivals.com

Further reports about: PER2 RNA Swansea activity circadian rhythm sample

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Symbiotic bacteria: from hitchhiker to beetle bodyguard
28.04.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

nachricht Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
28.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>