Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Robert Weinberg: Research Can Begin to Rationalize Complex Process of the Development of Metastases

27.03.2008
"The process of tumor metastasis has until recently been one of bewildering complexity. However, one can now begin to rationalize this complex process in terms of a relatively small number of master control genes which normally operate during normal development and which are appropriated and exploited by cancer cells", Dr. Robert Weinberg, a pioneer in cancer research from the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, USA, said in Berlin.

The reason for this is the discovery of transcription factors in the last few years. "Transcription factors are proteins that turn genes on and off and can act to program many of the traits of highly malignant cells", as described by Dr. Weinberg, who is also a Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

He delivered the key note lecture at the opening of the International Conference on "Invasion and Metastasis" of the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) in Berlin, Germany on Wednesday evening (March 26). He is most widely known for his discoveries of the first human oncogene - a gene that causes normal cells to form tumors - and the first tumor suppressor gene.

In 2007, almost 560,000 Americans and more than 1,8 million Europeans died of cancer, according to the American Cancer Society.

... more about:
»EMT »enable »epithelial »primary

"The vast majority (90 percent) of these patients were struck down by metastases, cancer cells that have disseminated and colonized in organs far from the primary tumor", Dr. Weinberg pointed out. "Only ten percent of cancer patients die of their primary tumors".

The majority of life-threatening cancers about 80 per cent, occur in epithelial tissue. Epithelial cells cover the outside of the body, skin cells, and line the inner organs such as breast glands, the colon, the prostrate, and blood and lymph vessels. But what exactly enables cancer cells to leave the primary tumor and "travel by the body's highways - the blood and the lymphatic vessels -", as Dr. Weinberg put it, to seek new sites where they may found new colonies?

Drastic change of the cell's traits

Recent research suggests that a drastic alteration of the primary cancer cells (called epithelial- mesenchymal transition or EMT) plays a crucial role in this complex biological process. "The EMT involves a profound change in the biological phenotype of cells in which they shed their epithelial traits together with their gene expression pattern and acquire mesenchymal ones instead", Dr. Weinberg explained.

Special epithelial markers, like E-cadherin and beta-Catenin, are depressed. These markers normally keep the epithelial cells tightly together. The mesenchymal state frees these cells to move about and to invade other tissues, and also makes them resistant to apoptosis, programmed cell death. "This pathological process is strikingly similar to the EMT normally occurring during embryogenesis and wound healing", said Weinberg.

EMT is an important program which enables carcinoma cells to become mobile and invasive. "Nonetheless, it is still unclear whether EMT underlies the malignant behavior of all carcinoma cells or whether alternative programs are activated to enable metastatic dissemination," Dr. Weinberg pointed out.

Many other questions still remain: Why do breast cancers typically metastasize in the brain, liver, bones, and lungs, prostrate cancers in the bones, and colon carcinomas in the liver? Why, after many years, do some micrometastases develop into macrometastases, which eventually lead to patient death? And, finally, why do some cancers not develop any metastases at all?

Altogether, about 160 scientists from Europe, Israel, Japan, the USA, Singapore, and Turkey participate in the conference which runs from March 26th through March 29th . The conference organizers are Prof. Walter Birchmeier and Dr. Ulrike Ziebold (both Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, MDC, Berlin-Buch) and Prof. Jürgen Behrens (University of Erlangen). Both Prof. Birchmeier and Prof. Behrens have published significant results about the formation of metastases during the past years. The conference is funded by the Deutsche Krebshilfe (German Cancer Research Foundation) and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

Barbara Bachtler
Press and Public Affairs
Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) Berlin-Buch
Robert-Rössle-Straße 10; 13125 Berlin; Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 30 94 06 - 38 96
Fax: +49 (0) 30 94 06 - 38 33
e-mail: presse@mdc-berlin.de

Barbara Bachtler | idw
Further information:
http://www.mdc-berlin.de/en/news
http://www.wi.mit.edu/research/faculty/weinberg.html

Further reports about: EMT enable epithelial primary

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth
09.12.2016 | Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

nachricht Plant-based substance boosts eyelash growth
09.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung IAP

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Electron highway inside crystal

Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.

Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth

09.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Scientists produce a new roadmap for guiding development & conservation in the Amazon

09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Satellites, airport visibility readings shed light on troops' exposure to air pollution

09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>