Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Programmed Destruction

19.03.2013
Results showing the same signaling enzymes can trigger two different processes in the cell sound a warning to biomedical researchers

Stroke, heart attacks and numerous other common disorders result in a massive destruction of cells and tissues called necrosis. It’s a violent event: As each cell dies, its membrane ruptures, releasing substances that trigger inflammation, which in turn can cause more cellular necrosis. A new Weizmann Institute study may help develop targeted therapies for controlling the tissue destruction resulting from inflammation and necrosis.

The study, conducted in the laboratory of Prof. David Wallach of the Biological Chemistry Department, focused on a group of signaling enzymes, including caspase 8, which was discovered by Wallach nearly two decades ago. Earlier studies by scientists in the United States, China and Europe had shown that this group of proteins induces “programmed,” or deliberate, necrosis intended to kill off damaged or infected cells. This revelation had generated the hope that by blocking the induction of necrotic cell death by these proteins, it might be possible to prevent excessive tissue damage in various diseases.

But in the new study, reported in Immunity, Wallach’s team sounds a warning. The researchers have revealed that under conditions favoring inflammation – that is, in the presence of certain bacterial components or other irritants – the same group of signaling enzymes can trigger an entirely different process in certain cells. It can activate a previously unknown cascade of biochemical reactions that causes inflammation more directly, without inducing necrosis, by stimulating the production of hormone-like regulatory proteins called cytokines. The research, mainly based on experiments in transgenic mice lacking caspase 8 in certain immune cells, was spearheaded by postdoctoral fellow Dr. Tae-Bong Kang. Team members Seung-Hoon Yang, Dr. Beata Toth and Dr. Andrew Kovalenko made important contributions to the study.

These findings suggest that prior to developing targeted necrosis-controlling therapies, researchers need to learn more about the signals transmitted by caspase 8 and its molecular partners: Since this signaling can lead to several entirely different outcomes, the scientists need to determine when exactly it results directly in necrosis and when it does not. Clarifying this matter is of enormous importance: Tissue necrosis occurs in a variety of disorders affecting billions of people, from the above-mentioned stroke and heart attack to viral infections and alcoholism-related degeneration of the liver.

Prof. David Wallach’s research is supported by the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust; and Merck Serono. Prof. Wallach is the incumbent of the Joseph and Bessie Feinberg Professorial Chair.

Yivsam Azgad | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.weizmann.ac.il

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Topologische Quantenchemie
21.07.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe

nachricht Topological Quantum Chemistry
21.07.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

Im Focus: On the way to a biological alternative

A bacterial enzyme enables reactions that open up alternatives to key industrial chemical processes

The research team of Prof. Dr. Oliver Einsle at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Biochemistry has long been exploring the functioning of nitrogenase....

Im Focus: The 1 trillion tonne iceberg

Larsen C Ice Shelf rift finally breaks through

A one trillion tonne iceberg - one of the biggest ever recorded -- has calved away from the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica, after a rift in the ice,...

Im Focus: Laser-cooled ions contribute to better understanding of friction

Physics supports biology: Researchers from PTB have developed a model system to investigate friction phenomena with atomic precision

Friction: what you want from car brakes, otherwise rather a nuisance. In any case, it is useful to know as precisely as possible how friction phenomena arise –...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

The technology with a feel for feelings

12.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA looks to solar eclipse to help understand Earth's energy system

21.07.2017 | Earth Sciences

Stanford researchers develop a new type of soft, growing robot

21.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Vortex photons from electrons in circular motion

21.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>