Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Polymer passage takes time

30.07.2010
New theory aids researchers studying DNA, protein transport

Polymer strands wriggle their way through nanometer-sized pores in a membrane to get from here to there and do their jobs. New theoretical research by Rice University scientists quantifies precisely how long the journey takes.

That's a good thing to know for scientists studying the transport of RNA, DNA and proteins -- all of which count as polymers -- or those who are developing membranes for use in biosensors or as drug-delivery devices.

Researchers led by Anatoly Kolomeisky, an associate professor of chemistry and of chemical and biomolecular engineering, have come up with a theoretical method to calculate the time it takes for long-chain polymers to translocate through nano-sized channels in membranes, like the one that separates the nucleus of a cell from surrounding cytoplasm. RNA molecules have to make this intracellular trip, as do proteins that pass through a cell's exterior membrane to perform tasks in the body.

Primary author Kolomeisky reported the findings this month in the Journal of Chemical Physics. Study co-authors include Aruna Mohan, a former postdoctoral research associate at Rice and now a researcher at Exxon-Mobil, and Matteo Pasquali, professor in chemical and biomolecular engineering and chemistry.

The team studied the translocation of a long polymer molecule, which roughly resembles beads on a string, through two types of nanopore geometries: a cylinder and a two-cylinder composite that resembled a large tube connected to a small tube. Not surprisingly, they found a polymer passed more quickly when entering the composite through the wide end.

"We assume the polymer is relatively large in comparison with the size of the pore, which is realistic," Kolomeisky said of the process, which is akin to threading a rope through a peephole. "A typical strand of DNA could be a thousand nanometers long, and the pore could have a length of a few nanometers."

It's been known for some time that polymers don't just fly through a pore, even when they find the opening. They start. They stop. They start again. And once the leading end has entered a pore, it can back out. Polymers often jitter backward and forward as they progress through a pore, constantly reconfiguring themselves.

"Previous theorists thought that as soon as the leading end reached the channel, the whole polymer would go through," he said. "We're saying it goes back and forth many times before it finally passes."

The key to an accurate description of polymer translocation with single-molecule precision is measuring electric currents that go through the pore. "When the current is high, there's no polymer in the channel. When the current is down, it's in the pore and blocking the flux," he said.

Experiments indicate typical DNA and RNA molecules could pass through a membrane in a few milliseconds, depending on the strength of the electric field driving them. But even that, he said, is much longer than researchers previously thought.

Kolomeisky said the new method works for pores of any geometry, whether they're straight, conical or made of joined cylinders of different sizes, like the hemolysin biological channel they simulated in their research.

The calculations apply equally to natural or artificial pores, which he said would be important to scientists making membranes for drug delivery, biosensors or water purification processes, or researching new methods for sequencing DNA.

Grants from the Welch Foundation and the National Science Foundation supported the research.

Read the abstract at: http://jcp.aip.org/jcpsa6/v133/i2/p024902_s1

Jade Boyd | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.rice.edu
http://jcp.aip.org/jcpsa6/v133/i2/p024902_s1

Further reports about: DNA Foundation Polymere RNA RNA molecule biomolecular engineering

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht What the world's tiniest 'monster truck' reveals
23.08.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht Treating arthritis with algae
23.08.2017 | Empa - Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

What the world's tiniest 'monster truck' reveals

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Treating arthritis with algae

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Witnessing turbulent motion in the atmosphere of a distant star

23.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>