Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Nano Fit-ness: Helping Enzymes Stay Active and Keep in Shape

07.04.2011
Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Discover New Method To Boost Enzymatic Activity

Proteins are critically important to life and the human body. They are also among the most complex molecules in nature, and there is much we still don’t know or understand about them.

One key challenge is the stability of enzymes, a particular type of protein that speeds up, or catalyzes, chemical reactions. Taken out of their natural environment in the cell or body, enzymes can quickly lose their shape and denature. Everyday examples of enzymes denaturing include milk going sour, or eggs turning solid when boiled.

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Professor Marc-Olivier Coppens has developed a new technique for boosting the stability of enzymes, making them useful under a much broader range of conditions. Coppens confined lysozyme and other enzymes inside carefully engineered nanoscale holes, or nanopores. Instead of denaturing, these embedded enzymes mostly retained their 3-D structure and exhibited a significant increase in activity.

“Normally, when you put an enzyme on a surface, its activity goes down. But in this study, we discovered that when we put enzymes in nanopores — a highly controlled environment — the enzymatic activity goes up dramatically,” said Coppens, a professor in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Rensselaer. “The enzymatic activity turns out to be very dependent on the local environment. This is very exciting.”

Results of the study are detailed in the paper, “Effects of surface curvature and surface chemistry on the structure and activity of proteins adsorbed in nanopores,” published last month by the journal Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. The paper may be viewed online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C0CP02273J

Researchers at Rensselaer and elsewhere have made important discoveries by wrapping enzymes and other proteins around nanomaterials. While this immobilizes the enzyme and often results in high stability and novel properties, the enzyme’s activity decreases as it loses its natural 3-D structure.

Coppens took a different approach, and inserted enzymes inside nanopores. Measuring only 3-4 nanometers (nm) in size, the enzyme lysozyme fits snugly into a nanoporous material with well-controlled pore size between 5 nm and 12 nm. Confined to this compact space, the enzymes have a much harder time unfolding or wiggling around, Coppens said.

The discovery raises many questions and opens up entirely new possibilities related to biology, chemistry, medicine, and nanoengineering, Coppens said. He envisions this technology could be adapted to better control nanoscale environments, as well as increase the activity and selectivity of different enzymes. Looking forward, Coppens and colleagues will employ molecular simulations, multiscale modeling methods, and physical experiments to better understand the fundamental mechanics of confining enzymes inside nanopores.

The study was co-authored by Lung-Ching Sang, a former Rensselaer graduate student in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering.

This research was supported by the National Science Foundation, via the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for Directed Assembly of Nanostructures at Rensselaer. The project was also supported by the International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics of the National Institute for Materials Science, Japan.

Coppens joined Rensselaer in 2006, after serving as professor and chair in physical chemistry and molecular thermodynamics at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands.

For more information on Coppens’ research at Rensselaer, visit:

http://nice.che.rpi.edu/
http://nice.che.rpi.edu/research.html
For more information on the chemical and biological engineering research at Rensselaer, visit:
http://cbe.rpi.edu/
http://approach.rpi.edu/tag/cheme

Contact: Michael Mullaney
Phone: (518) 276-6161
E-mail: mullam@rpi.edu

Michael Mullaney | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.rpi.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Nanoparticle Exposure Can Awaken Dormant Viruses in the Lungs
16.01.2017 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape
13.01.2017 | Princeton University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

Im Focus: Bacterial Pac Man molecule snaps at sugar

Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.

The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...

Im Focus: Newly proposed reference datasets improve weather satellite data quality

UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration

"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...

Im Focus: Repairing defects in fiber-reinforced plastics more efficiently

Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.

Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Multiregional brain on a chip

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

New technology enables 5-D imaging in live animals, humans

16.01.2017 | Information Technology

Researchers develop environmentally friendly soy air filter

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>