Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Moonwalker flies backing up

03.04.2014

Researchers at the Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) in Vienna identify brain cells that control backward walking in fruit flies

The team of Barry Dickson, former scientific director of the IMP, managed to isolate “moonwalker flies” in a high-throughput screen. Screening a large collection of fruit flies, the scientists found specimens that seemed locked in reverse gear. Dickson and his co-workers were able to trace these changes in walking direction back to the activity of specific neurons in the brain. The results of the study will be published in the current issue of Science.


The picture depicts two neurons, MDN (Moonwalker Descending Neuron) and MAN (Moonwalker Ascending Neuron), that in the course of the study were found to be implicated in backward walking. The figure shows segmented representations of these neurons mapped onto a common template fly brain.

Picture: IMP, courtesy of the journal Science/AAAS

Most land animals walk forward by default, but can switch to backward walking when they sense an obstacle or danger in the path ahead. The impulse to change walking direction is likely to be transmitted by descending neurons of the brain that control local motor circuits within the central nervous system. This neuronal input can change walking direction by adjusting the order or timing of individual leg movements.

Screening for flies with altered walking patterns

... more about:
»IMP »Molecular »Pathology »activity »flies »mechanisms »neural »neurons »walk

In the current study, Dickson and his team aimed to understand the fly’s change in walking direction at the cellular level. Using a novel technology known as thermogenetics, they were able to identify the neurons in the brain that cause a change in locomotion. Their studies involved screening large numbers of flies with it which specific neurons were activated by heat, producing certain behaviors only when warmed to 30°C, but not at 24°C . Analysing several thousand flies, the researchers looked for strains that exhibited altered walking patterns compared to control animals.

Moonwalker-neurons control backward walking

Using the thermogenetic screen, the IMP-researchers isolated four lines of flies that walked backward on heat activation. They were able to track down these changes to specific nerve cells in the fly brain which they dubbed „moonwalker neurons“. They could also show that silencing the activity of these neurons using tetanus toxin rendered the flies unable to walk backward.

Among the moonwalker neurons, the activity of descending MDN-neurons is required for flies to walk backward when they encounter an obstacle. Input from MDN brain cells is sufficient to induce backward walking in flies that would otherwise walk forward. Ascending moonwalker neurons (MAN) promote persistent backward walking, possibly by inhibiting forward walking.

“This is the first identification of specific neurons that carry the command for the switch in walking direction of an insect”, says Salil Bidaye, lead author of the study. “Our findings provide a great entry point into the entire walking circuit of the fly. “

Although there are obvious differences in how insects and humans walk, it is likely that there are functional analogies at a neural circuit level. Insights into the neural basis of insect walking could also generate applications in the field of robotics. To date, none of the engineered robots that are used for rescue or exploration missions can walk as robustly as animals. Understanding how insects change their walking direction at a neuronal level would reveal the mechanistic basis of achieving such robust walking behavior. 

Original Publication
The paper “Neuronal Control of Drosophila Walking Direction” by Salil S. Bidaye, Christian Machacek, Yang Wu and Barry Dickson is published in SCIENCE on 3 April, 2014.

Illustration & Videos
An illustration and videos to be used free of charge in connection with this press release can be downloaded from the IMP website: www.imp.ac.at/pressefoto-moonwalk

About Barry Dickson
Barry Dickson studied mathematics, computer science and genetics at the Universities of Melbourne and Queensland, Australia. After two years as a research assistant at the Salk Institute, San Diego, he moved to Zurich to work towards his PhD with Ernst Hafen at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. For his postdoctoral research, he joined Corey Goodman at the University of California in Berkeley. In 1998, Dickson joined the IMP in Vienna as Group Leader, and in 2006 was appointed Scientific Director of the institute. Since 2013, Barry Dickson is a Group Leader at the Janelia Farm Research Campus of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

About Salil Bidaye
Salil Bidaye received his Integrated Masters in Biotechnology from the University of Pune, India. From 2008 until 2013, he was a doctoral student at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology in Vienna and received his PhD from the University of Vienna. At present, Salil Bidaye is a Postdoctoral Scholar at the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology of the University of California, Berkeley.

About the IMP
The Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) in Vienna is a basic biomedical research institute largely sponsored by Boehringer Ingelheim. With over 200 scientists from 37 nations, the IMP is committed to scientific discovery of fundamental molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying complex biological phenomena. Research areas include cell and molecular biology, neurobiology, disease mechanisms and computational biology.

Contact
Dr. Heidemarie Hurtl
Communications
IMP Research Institute of Molecular Pathology
Phone: +43 (0)664 8247910
E-mail: hurtl@imp.ac.at

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.imp.ac.at/pressefoto-moonwalk

Dr. Heidemarie Hurtl | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Further reports about: IMP Molecular Pathology activity flies mechanisms neural neurons walk

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New Model of T Cell Activation
27.05.2016 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht Fungi – a promising source of chemical diversity
27.05.2016 | Leibniz-Institut für Naturstoff-Forschung und Infektionsbiologie - Hans-Knöll-Institut (HKI)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Worldwide Success of Tyrolean Wastewater Treatment Technology

A biological and energy-efficient process, developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck, converts nitrogen compounds in wastewater treatment facilities into harmless atmospheric nitrogen gas. This innovative technology is now being refined and marketed jointly with the United States’ DC Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water). The largest DEMON®-system in a wastewater treatment plant is currently being built in Washington, DC.

The DEMON®-system was developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck 11 years ago. Today this successful technology has been implemented in about 70...

Im Focus: Computational high-throughput screening finds hard magnets containing less rare earth elements

Permanent magnets are very important for technologies of the future like electromobility and renewable energy, and rare earth elements (REE) are necessary for their manufacture. The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM in Freiburg, Germany, has now succeeded in identifying promising approaches and materials for new permanent magnets through use of an in-house simulation process based on high-throughput screening (HTS). The team was able to improve magnetic properties this way and at the same time replaced REE with elements that are less expensive and readily available. The results were published in the online technical journal “Scientific Reports”.

The starting point for IWM researchers Wolfgang Körner, Georg Krugel, and Christian Elsässer was a neodymium-iron-nitrogen compound based on a type of...

Im Focus: Atomic precision: technologies for the next-but-one generation of microchips

In the Beyond EUV project, the Fraunhofer Institutes for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen and for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering IOF in Jena are developing key technologies for the manufacture of a new generation of microchips using EUV radiation at a wavelength of 6.7 nm. The resulting structures are barely thicker than single atoms, and they make it possible to produce extremely integrated circuits for such items as wearables or mind-controlled prosthetic limbs.

In 1965 Gordon Moore formulated the law that came to be named after him, which states that the complexity of integrated circuits doubles every one to two...

Im Focus: Researchers demonstrate size quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene

Characterization of high-quality material reveals important details relevant to next generation nanoelectronic devices

Quantum mechanics is the field of physics governing the behavior of things on atomic scales, where things work very differently from our everyday world.

Im Focus: Graphene: A quantum of current

When current comes in discrete packages: Viennese scientists unravel the quantum properties of the carbon material graphene

In 2010 the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded for the discovery of the exceptional material graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Networking 4.0: International Laser Technology Congress AKL’16 Shows New Ways of Cooperations

24.05.2016 | Event News

Challenges of rural labor markets

20.05.2016 | Event News

International expert meeting “Health Business Connect” in France

19.05.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

11 million Euros for research into magnetic field sensors for medical diagnostics

27.05.2016 | Awards Funding

Fungi – a promising source of chemical diversity

27.05.2016 | Life Sciences

New Model of T Cell Activation

27.05.2016 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>