Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Mini-pig tale provides massive amount of genomic data for human health

15.11.2012
Researchers provide a whole-genome sequence and analysis of a miniature pig that serves as a model organism for human medical studies and therapeutic drug testing

The international open-access journal GigaScience (a BGI and BioMed Central journal) announces the publication of the whole-genome sequencing and analysis of the Wuzhishan Pig, an extensively inbred, miniature pig, which can serve as an excellent model for human medical research.

The availability of the mini-pig genome provides a wealth of genetic tools that will enable detailed and well thought-out analyses on an animal that shares a substantial number of complex diseases with humans. The work here, led by researchers from the BGI, Beijing Institute of Animal Science (IAS), and Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science (CAAS), also revealed potentially actionable resources including the identification of the porcine counterparts of human drug target genes.

Pigs are one of the oldest domesticated livestock species, and as well as providing one of the largest sources of meat worldwide, also provide important medical industrial resources, such as pharmaceutical-grade heparin and heart valves for xenotransplantation. The pig shares many of the same complex genetic diseases as humans, making them excellent models for studying the underlying biology of human disease. Furthermore, the similarity of the pig diet and digestive system with humans makes them ideal for investigation of metabolic diseases and nutritional analyses. The Wuzhishan pig used in this study provides additional advantages for medical analysis: its small size makes it easy to handle; and its long history of inbreeding have resulted in a breed of pigs made up of individuals that are genetically very similar, allowing greater reproducibility in scientific analyses.

To provide the best understanding of the genetics of the Wuzhishan pig and tools for laboratory studies, the researchers at the BGI in collaboration with scientists from several institutions in China and Denmark, carried out whole genome sequencing. They obtained a genome sequence of exceptionally high quality and used this to assess genomic structure and functional elements and investigate characteristics that would be of great interest for medical studies. In particular they looked at genes and protein domains that were the pig counterpart of human genes that are important for therapeutic drug activity. These analyses showed that the Wuzhishan pig genome contained a very large number of similar drug target genes for several types of human disorders, indicating that this pig would serve as an excellent model for drug testing in these cases. However, the researchers also found that there were several situations where target genes showed important differences from the human versions. This information is of great use as well, as it provides a clear indication of the types of drug testing for which this organism is not as useful, saving unnecessary experimentation, time, and money.

Lead researchers Dr Yutao Du and Prof Shutang Feng note that, "the physiological similarities to humans was maintained at a genetic level with 84% homology between the two species. While there was a great deal of similarity in genes known to be involved in coronary artery disease and drug target genes, detailed analysis showed that there were several important differences which need to be taken account of."

The scientists also assessed the presence of viruses integrated into the genome, which is a concern given that pigs have been considered as a possible source of xenotransplantation and thus viruses could be transferred to the human patients through transplantation.

Drs Du and Feng noted that the viral analyses provide tools and information for investigating such concerns by allowing more direct assessment of the risk of transmission. They explained that, "both humans and pigs carry viruses hidden within their genomes. One particular virus, porcine endogenous retrovirus (PER), once activated can infect human cells, however the genome sequence has revealed that a specific type PER virus (type C) has been lost from the mini-pig."

Overall, the extensive amount of work in this study serves as a springboard for more economical and directed means of carrying out biomedical analyses and also provides a new resource for investigation of economically important traits, domestication events, and the evolution of this group of animals.

Of further note: in addition to this study, also published today in the journal Nature is independent work from the Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium presenting a reference genome of a breed of pig that is an economically important food source, and the additional genomes of a number of European and Asian wild and domesticated swine species. Also released today in several BioMed Central journals is a series of accompanying articles that cover various related topics, such as pig genome structure and function, genome annotation, and findings of biomedical relevance.

In keeping with the scientific community's goals of making the data underlying the analyses used in published research fully and freely available, all data from this project are available under a CC0 waiver in the GigaScience database, GigaDB, in a citable format, and are also available under the following accession numbers in the NCBI public repositories: NCBI Sequence Read Archive: SRA051254, NCBI BioProject: PRJNA144099, and NCBI GenBank AJKK00000000.

References:

Xiaodong Fang, Yulian Mu, Zhiyong Huang, Yong Li, Lijuan Han, Yanfeng Zhang, Yue Feng, Yuanxin Chen, Xuanting Jiang, Wei Zhao, Xiaoqing Sun, Zhiqiang Xiong, Lan Yang, Huan Liu, Dingding Fan, Likai Mao, Lijie Ren, Chuxin Liu, Juan Wang, Kui Li, Guangbiao Wang, Shulin Yang, Liangxue Lai, Guojie Zhang, Yingrui Li, Jun Wang, Lars Bolund, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Shutang Feng, Songgang Li and Yutao Du: The sequence and analysis of an inbred pig genome GigaScience 2012 1:16 http://www.gigasciencejournal.com/content/1/1/16/

Fang, X; Huang, Z; Li, Y; Feng, Y; Chen, Y; Jiang, X; Yang, L (2012): Genomic data from the Wuzhishan inbred pig (Sus scrofa). GigaScience. http://dx.doi.org/10.5524/100031

Martien A.M. Groenen et al., 'Analysis of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution' Nature 2012, in press

This work was supported by the National Science and Technology Ministry Project - 973 program (2011CB944201), Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Transomics Biotechnologies (CXB201108250096A), and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Gene Bank for National Life Science.

Scott Edmunds | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.gigasciencejournal.com

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Link Discovered between Immune System, Brain Structure and Memory
26.04.2017 | Universität Basel

nachricht Researchers develop eco-friendly, 4-in-1 catalyst
25.04.2017 | Brown University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientist invents way to trigger artificial photosynthesis to clean air

26.04.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ammonium nitrogen input increases the synthesis of anticarcinogenic compounds in broccoli

26.04.2017 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

SwRI-led team discovers lull in Mars' giant impact history

26.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>