It was previously known how the chemical reaction goes about adding amino acids to the growing protein. Both computer simulations and x-ray crystallographic experiments have identified a hydrogen bonding network that appears to be the main explanation for the high speed of the reaction. What is especially remarkable is the presence of a couple of "trapped" water molecules seem to be the only parts of the ribosome that are in contact with the reacting chemical groups.
Doctoral candidate Göran Wallin and Professor Johan Åqvist at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at Uppsala University have carried out large-scale calculations of the ribosome reaction center, and this has enabled them to monitor the changes electronic structure during the reaction. With about a thousand quantum mechanical optimizations, they have succeeded in establishing exactly what the highest point of the energy surface looks like, the point that determines the speed of the reaction.
"Our calculations provide a detailed picture of the reaction and show that the two water molecules play a central role in ribosome catalysis. One of the molecules participates directly in the reaction by 'shuffling' protons around, while the other one helps increase the speed of the reaction," explains Johan Åqvist.
The findings surprisingly show that it is just a few components in the ribosome's reaction center that induce the catalytic effect, whereas the surrounding structure mainly holds them in place.
"An exciting question for future research is whether these components are a vestige of a primordial and much simpler ribosome," says Johan Åqvist.
Johan Åqvist | EurekAlert!
What the world's tiniest 'monster truck' reveals
23.08.2017 | American Chemical Society
Treating arthritis with algae
23.08.2017 | Empa - Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
16.08.2017 | Event News
04.08.2017 | Event News
26.07.2017 | Event News
23.08.2017 | Life Sciences
23.08.2017 | Life Sciences
23.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy