Insecticide resistance in crop pests is a serious global problem. Scientists of the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, have now found out what causes the strong resistance of an Australian strain of cotton bollworms (Helicoverpa armigera) to fenvalerate.
Moth (male) of the globally dreaded pest insect, Helicoverpa armigera
MPI for Chemical Ecology/Joußen
Nicole Joußen, scientist at the institute and expert on P450 enzymes, studied the Helicoverpa armigera strain “TWB” resistant to fenvalerate. She could identify the P450 monooxygenase in this strain, suspected to mediate pyrethroid resistance. After cloning larger genome regions, DNA sequencing, and performing crossing experiments as well as biochemical analyses, she was surprised to find that of the seven P450 enzymes only one, CYP337B3, hydroxylates the fenvalerate molecule to 4‘-hydroxyfenvalerate. This chemical reaction increases the resistance to this toxin 42-fold: A LD50 value of 1.9 µg of fenvalerate was measured in resistant TWB larvae, whereas half of the non-resistant caterpillars died after intake of only 0.04 µg of the toxin.
Unequal Crossing-Over led to the formation of the CYP337B3 Gene
The CYP337B3 gene was formed in a very special way: by a process called “unequal crossing-over” by geneticists. If very similar DNA sequences, for example transposable elements, get in contact with one another during the division of cell nuclei, novel gene combinations occur. As a consequence, some of the genetic information is lost on one DNA strand, and new genetic information is inserted and sometimes even doubled on the other strand. This natural process is important for the evolution of gene families, as could now be observed in the case of the CYP337B3 gene. “For the first time, our results reveal a mutation mediating resistance to an insecticide, which is caused by a crossing-over event,” says David Heckel. The scientists studied CYP337B3 and found that the gene consists of parts of two other P450 genes, B1 and B2, encoding enzymes neither of which can detoxify fenvalerate. The unique combination of parts of the B1 and B2 precursor genes in the chimeric B3 gene is responsible for the new capability of the P450 enzyme to bind, hydroxylate, and finally detoxify the insecticide.Once the CYP337B3 gene was formed, spraying cotton bollworms with pyrethroids caused its frequency in the population to gradually increase. This resistance was successfully delayed in Australia by restricting the use of pyrethroids to once per year, and using other insecticides at other times. This contrasts with the situation in other cotton-growing countries, where pyrethroids were overused, resistance rapidly developed, and then pyrethroids became ineffective against the bollworm. [AO/JWK]
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The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
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