Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Glial cells can cross from the central to the peripheral nervous system

02.12.2009
New study about 'helper' cells has implications for nerve disorders such as multiple sclerosis

Glial cells, which help neurons communicate with each other, can leave the central nervous system and cross into the peripheral nervous system to compensate for missing cells, according to new research in the Dec. 2 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience.

The animal study contributes to researchers' basic understanding of how the two nervous systems develop and are maintained, which is essential for the effective treatment of diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (sensory organs, muscles, and glands). A major difference between the systems is that each has its own type of glial cells. In a healthy body, glial cells are tightly segregated and aren't known to travel between the two systems. The peripheral nervous system also regenerates more than the central nervous system, due in part to its glial cells — a characteristic that, if better understood, might be used to improve the regenerative capabilities of the central nervous system.

Glial cells serve nerve cells by insulating them with layers of fats and proteins called myelin. Myelin coatings are necessary for nerve signals to be transmitted normally; when the sheaths are lost, disorders involving impairment in sensation, movement and cognition such as multiple sclerosis or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis develop. Glial cells named oligodendrocytes produce myelin around nerves of the central nervous system, while those named Schwann cells make myelin that insulates peripheral nerves.

This study shows that in the absence of Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes migrate from the central nervous system along motor nerves and form myelin on peripheral nerves, indicating that glial cell movement across the border is controlled by a self-policing mechanism.

"Past studies have hinted that Schwann cells can cross into the central nervous system after peripheral nerves near the border are damaged, or after central nerves lose their myelin sheath," said Bruce Appel, PhD, of the University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, one of the study's authors. "However, migration across the border has never been observed directly, nor was there any evidence that oligodendrocytes can move in the opposite direction."

The authors used time-lapse video of mutant zebrafish to study the glial cell movement. Movies of translucent live zebrafish that lacked Schwann cells showed that oligodendrocytes left the central nervous system to wrap peripheral nerves with myelin — effectively attempting to compensate for the missing Schwann cells.

"This new observation is not only relevant to normal nerve function, but also to potential causes of disease in the peripheral nervous system. We're still unsure as to exactly how foreign glial cells interact with the other system. Do they help heal or do they act as a toxin?" said Bruce Trapp, PhD, at the Cleveland Clinic, who is unaffiliated with the study. "Knowing the mechanisms that anatomically restrict peripheral and central nervous system glia could help develop therapies that treat or prevent certain nervous system diseases."

Appel and his colleagues said that future investigations are needed to determine how different glial cells communicate to restrict their movements between nervous systems, and whether oligodendrocyte myelin can fully substitute for Schwann cell myelin on motor nerves.

Study video and images are available upon request.

The research was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and a zebrafish initiative funded by the Vanderbilt University Academic Venture Capital Fund.

The Journal of Neuroscience is published by the Society for Neuroscience, an organization of more than 40,000 basic scientists and clinicians who study the brain and nervous system. Appel can be reached at bruce.appel@ucdenver.edu.

Kat Snodgrass | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.sfn.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

nachricht CWRU researchers find a chemical solution to shrink digital data storage
22.06.2017 | Case Western Reserve University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

Im Focus: Optoelectronic Inline Measurement – Accurate to the Nanometer

Germany counts high-precision manufacturing processes among its advantages as a location. It’s not just the aerospace and automotive industries that require almost waste-free, high-precision manufacturing to provide an efficient way of testing the shape and orientation tolerances of products. Since current inline measurement technology not yet provides the required accuracy, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is collaborating with four renowned industry partners in the INSPIRE project to develop inline sensors with a new accuracy class. Funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the project is scheduled to run until the end of 2019.

New Manufacturing Technologies for New Products

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation

22.06.2017 | Life Sciences

Plant inspiration could lead to flexible electronics

22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences

A rhodium-based catalyst for making organosilicon using less precious metal

22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>