It can recognize and respond to a component found in the cell wall of bacteria, muramyl dipeptide (MDP), and has been shown to play an important role in the innate immune response of macrophages to bacterial infections. However, the function of NOD2 in the gastrointestinal tract and the colon and its contribution of mutant NOD2 alleles to the pathogenesis of CD is still unclear.
A research article to be published on October 14, 2008 in the World Journal of Gastroenterology addresses this question. The research team led by Professor Simon Carding from the University of Leeds used in vivo and in vitro studies to analyse the specific function of NOD2 in colonic epithelial cells.
They found that NOD2 was predominantly expressed in epithelial cells at the base of colonic crypts, where the majority of cells are undergoing proliferation. In addition, NOD2's ligand, MDP, stimulated the growth of in vitro cultures of colonic epithelial cells. Further evidence for the role of NOD2 in cell growth and survival was obtained using NOD2-deficient mice and RNA interference. In the absence of NOD2 colonic epithelial cells proliferation was reduced and apoptosis increased, which were exacerbated when challenged with the enteric pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium. Surprisingly the ability of NOD2 to promote cell growth and survival was also apparent in the colorectal cancer cells as the introduction of siRNAs specific for NOD2 resulted in an 80% decrease in survival compared to cells treated with control NOD2 siRNA.
These results highlight for the first time the importance of NOD2 in the regulation of epithelial cell growth and survival and consequently the integrity of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier, that is required for protection against pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial infections. further investigation is needed to assess if these receptors work alongside each other in the regulation of epithelial cell homeostasis.
Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth
09.12.2016 | Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Plant-based substance boosts eyelash growth
09.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung IAP
Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
09.12.2016 | Life Sciences
09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine