It can recognize and respond to a component found in the cell wall of bacteria, muramyl dipeptide (MDP), and has been shown to play an important role in the innate immune response of macrophages to bacterial infections. However, the function of NOD2 in the gastrointestinal tract and the colon and its contribution of mutant NOD2 alleles to the pathogenesis of CD is still unclear.
A research article to be published on October 14, 2008 in the World Journal of Gastroenterology addresses this question. The research team led by Professor Simon Carding from the University of Leeds used in vivo and in vitro studies to analyse the specific function of NOD2 in colonic epithelial cells.
They found that NOD2 was predominantly expressed in epithelial cells at the base of colonic crypts, where the majority of cells are undergoing proliferation. In addition, NOD2's ligand, MDP, stimulated the growth of in vitro cultures of colonic epithelial cells. Further evidence for the role of NOD2 in cell growth and survival was obtained using NOD2-deficient mice and RNA interference. In the absence of NOD2 colonic epithelial cells proliferation was reduced and apoptosis increased, which were exacerbated when challenged with the enteric pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium. Surprisingly the ability of NOD2 to promote cell growth and survival was also apparent in the colorectal cancer cells as the introduction of siRNAs specific for NOD2 resulted in an 80% decrease in survival compared to cells treated with control NOD2 siRNA.
These results highlight for the first time the importance of NOD2 in the regulation of epithelial cell growth and survival and consequently the integrity of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier, that is required for protection against pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial infections. further investigation is needed to assess if these receptors work alongside each other in the regulation of epithelial cell homeostasis.
Don't Give the Slightest Chance to Toxic Elements in Medicinal Products
23.03.2018 | Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
North and South Cooperation to Combat Tuberculosis
22.03.2018 | Universität Zürich
Satellites in near-Earth orbit are at risk due to the steady increase in space debris. But their mission in the areas of telecommunications, navigation or weather forecasts is essential for society. Fraunhofer FHR therefore develops radar-based systems which allow the detection, tracking and cataloging of even the smallest particles of debris. Satellite operators who have access to our data are in a better position to plan evasive maneuvers and prevent destructive collisions. From April, 25-29 2018, Fraunhofer FHR and its partners will exhibit the complementary radar systems TIRA and GESTRA as well as the latest radar techniques for space observation across three stands at the ILA Berlin.
The "traffic situation" in space is very tense: the Earth is currently being orbited not only by countless satellites but also by a large volume of space...
An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.
The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...
In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.
Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...
Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.
They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...
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