It can recognize and respond to a component found in the cell wall of bacteria, muramyl dipeptide (MDP), and has been shown to play an important role in the innate immune response of macrophages to bacterial infections. However, the function of NOD2 in the gastrointestinal tract and the colon and its contribution of mutant NOD2 alleles to the pathogenesis of CD is still unclear.
A research article to be published on October 14, 2008 in the World Journal of Gastroenterology addresses this question. The research team led by Professor Simon Carding from the University of Leeds used in vivo and in vitro studies to analyse the specific function of NOD2 in colonic epithelial cells.
They found that NOD2 was predominantly expressed in epithelial cells at the base of colonic crypts, where the majority of cells are undergoing proliferation. In addition, NOD2's ligand, MDP, stimulated the growth of in vitro cultures of colonic epithelial cells. Further evidence for the role of NOD2 in cell growth and survival was obtained using NOD2-deficient mice and RNA interference. In the absence of NOD2 colonic epithelial cells proliferation was reduced and apoptosis increased, which were exacerbated when challenged with the enteric pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium. Surprisingly the ability of NOD2 to promote cell growth and survival was also apparent in the colorectal cancer cells as the introduction of siRNAs specific for NOD2 resulted in an 80% decrease in survival compared to cells treated with control NOD2 siRNA.
These results highlight for the first time the importance of NOD2 in the regulation of epithelial cell growth and survival and consequently the integrity of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier, that is required for protection against pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial infections. further investigation is needed to assess if these receptors work alongside each other in the regulation of epithelial cell homeostasis.
Cryo-electron microscopy achieves unprecedented resolution using new computational methods
24.03.2017 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
How cheetahs stay fit and healthy
24.03.2017 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
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24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy