Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Female bonobos start up early

28.07.2014

Onset of puberty in female bonobos precedes that of chimpanzees

Puberty is the threshold between childhood and adulthood. Behavior and appearance change considerably during this period – not only in humans but also in our closest relatives, the great apes.


The five-year-old female Bonobo Solea (left) lives in LuiKotale, Democratic Republic of Congo. Maimouna (left), a five-year-old female chimpanzee, lives in the Taï National Park, Ivory coast.

© Solea: Sean Lee, LKBP; Maimouna: Liran Samuni

In a current study researchers of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have investigated at which age bonobos and chimpanzees, the closest living relatives of humans, enter puberty.

In order to determine the onset of puberty the researchers measured the concentration of the hormone testosterone which rapidly increases when male and female primates reach sexual maturity. They found that in males of both species urinary testosterone levels increase at an age of about eight years.

Female chimpanzees showed a similar increase at a slightly older age. Female bonobos, however, were found to enter puberty already with five years of age. This is surprising since bonobos are known to be late bloomers whose developmental processes tend to be delayed or take longer in comparison to chimpanzees.

During puberty, rising hormone levels stimulate somatic growth and the development of secondary sex characteristics, and the child becomes a grown-up individual. The timing of puberty depends, among others, on environmental conditions, nutrition and social factors. From a biological point of view puberty is the starting signal for the race of passing on one’s own genes to future generations. While pubertal changes in humans and male chimpanzees have been well investigated, this has not been the case so far for bonobos and female chimpanzees.

In their current study researchers of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have measured the concentrations of testosterone in the urine of 42 male and 97 female chimpanzees and of 48 male and 64 female bonobos. They found that female bonobos enter puberty around three years earlier than female chimpanzees and males of both species. “Given the early onset of puberty, one would predict to assume that female bonobos give birth to their first child earlier than chimpanzees. Yet, this does not seem to be the case“, says Verena Behringer, researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and first author of the study.

In contrast to most other primates, young female chimpanzees and bonobos leave their birth group when they reach sexual maturity. Entering a novel range and exposure to an unfamiliar social environment bears high potential costs for the young female.  Especially in chimpanzees this is not always easy because food is limited and each additional group member’s needs may raise competition. The social pressure is partially compensated by the fact that young females become more attractive to males. This motivates chimpanzee males to protect female newcomers against the aggressive behavior of other female group members.

In bonobos, female teenagers start their search for a new group between two and three years earlier than female chimpanzees. In contrast to them, female bonobos joining a new community encounter curiosity rather than aggression. “Possible advantages from entering puberty earlier are a greater search area for a new group and more time to obtain social experiences and to develop their sexuality”, says Verena Behringer. “The latter is a central element in the behavioral repertoire of bonobos which helps to solve conflicts, and establish friendly relations with others.”

The urine samples used for this study came from apes living in zoos. Therefore, the nutritional status can be excluded as a reason for the time discrepancy between both species. “The earlier onset of puberty in bonobos seems to be a characteristic feature that emerged during the evolutionary development of both sister species“, says Verena Behringer.

Contact 

Sandra Jacob

Press and Public Relations

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig

Phone: +49 341 3550-122

 

Original publication

 
V. Behringer, T. Deschner, C. Deimel, J.M.G. Stevens, G. Hohmann
Age-related changes in urinary testosterone levels suggest differences in puberty onset and divergent life history strategies in bonobos and chimpanzees
Hormones and Behavior, 28 July 2014 (DOI: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2014.07.011)

Dr. Verena Behringer | Max-Planck-Institute
Further information:
http://www.mpg.de/8326482/female-bonobos-puberty

Further reports about: Evolutionary chimpanzees female hormone levels species testosterone

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Shark Tagged by NSU’s Guy Harvey Research Institute Is Apparently Enjoying Time in Warm, Tropical Waters
30.03.2015 | Nova Southeastern University

nachricht Misuse of Sustainability Concept May Lead to Even More Toxic Chemical Materials
30.03.2015 | Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Experiment Provides the Best Look Yet at 'Warm Dense Matter' at Cores of Giant Planets

In an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists precisely measured the temperature and structure of aluminum as...

Im Focus: Energy-autonomous and wireless monitoring protects marine gearboxes

The IPH presents a solution at HANNOVER MESSE 2015 to make ship traffic more reliable while decreasing the maintenance costs at the same time. In cooperation with project partners, the research institute from Hannover, Germany, has developed a sensor system which continuously monitors the condition of the marine gearbox, thus preventing breakdowns. Special feature: the monitoring system works wirelessly and energy-autonomously. The required electrical power is generated where it is needed – directly at the sensor.

As well as cars need to be certified regularly (in Germany by the TÜV – Technical Inspection Association), ships need to be inspected – if the powertrain stops...

Im Focus: 3-D satellite, GPS earthquake maps isolate impacts in real time

Method produced by UI researcher could improve reaction time to deadly, expensive quakes

When an earthquake hits, the faster first responders can get to an impacted area, the more likely infrastructure--and lives--can be saved.

Im Focus: Atlantic Ocean overturning found to slow down already today

The Atlantic overturning is one of Earth’s most important heat transport systems, pumping warm water northwards and cold water southwards. Also known as the Gulf Stream system, it is responsible for the mild climate in northwestern Europe. 

Scientists now found evidence for a slowdown of the overturning – multiple lines of observation suggest that in recent decades, the current system has been...

Im Focus: Robot inspects concrete garage floors and bridge roadways for damage

Because they are regularly subjected to heavy vehicle traffic, emissions, moisture and salt, above- and underground parking garages, as well as bridges, frequently experience large areas of corrosion. Most inspection systems to date have only been capable of inspecting smaller surface areas.

From April 13 to April 17 at the Hannover Messe (hall 2, exhibit booth C16), engineers from the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing IZFP will be...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

World Conference On Regenerative Medicine 2015: Registration And Abstract Submission Now Open

25.03.2015 | Event News

University presidents from all over the world meet in Hamburg

19.03.2015 | Event News

10. CeBiTec Symposium zum Big Data-Problem

17.03.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

BLS Cargo orders 15 multisystem locomotives

30.03.2015 | Press release

Shark Tagged by NSU’s Guy Harvey Research Institute Is Apparently Enjoying Time in Warm, Tropical Waters

30.03.2015 | Life Sciences

Antarctic Ice Shelves Rapidly Thinning

30.03.2015 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>