Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Corals turn to algae for stored food when times get tough

14.05.2013
Researchers at EPFL present new evidence for the crucial role of algae in the survival of their coral hosts. Ultra-high resolution images reveal that the algae temporarily store nutrients as crystals, building up reserves for when supplies run low

Researchers at EPFL present new evidence for the crucial role of algae in the survival of their coral hosts. Ultra-high resolution images reveal that the algae temporarily store nutrients as crystals, building up reserves for when supplies run low.

The relationship between corals and the microscopic algae they harbor is a classic example of biological symbiosis - the mutually beneficial interaction of two species. But crucial details regarding their relationship have remained elusive until now. Using state-of-the-art imaging techniques, Anders Meibom and his team of researchers in the Laboratory for Biological Geochemistry have found new evidence on the vital role algae play in helping corals survive in environments where nutrients are scarce. Their findings were published in the journal mBio on May 16, 2013.

"Coral reefs are the jungles of our oceans - hotspots of biodiversity that easily outcompete all other marine ecosystems," says Christophe Kopp, first-author of the publication. Coral bleaching occurs when the colorful algae abandon their coral host because of environmental strains like rising sea temperatures. On their own, corals struggle to survive in tropical waters where nutrients are scarce, and persistent starvation can have irreversible effects. While it is well known that algae help corals to assimilate certain nutrients, such as nitrogen from seawater, how this occurs, and to what extent the corals can get by on their own, are less clear.

To study how nitrogen-rich nutrients are taken up and processed by the corals and the algae that inhabit them, Meibom's research group teamed up with the Aquarium Tropicale Porte Dorée in Paris to run a series of experiments. There, they fed the corals nitrogen-rich compounds labeled with a heavy nitrogen isotope that they could later trace in the lab. Every few minutes, they extracted bits of coral, which they fixed and analyzed with a state-of-the-art isotopic imaging instrument, a so-called NanoSIMS.

Next, they assembled a timeline of how the nitrogen is processed by the corals and their resident algae by lining up the images of the samples extracted at different times. A combination of electron microscopy and mass spectrometry allowed them to study with unprecedented precision into which cellular compartments the heavier nitrogen isotopes had been incorporated.

Crystal food banks

The research revealed that the corals depend strongly on the algae to extract sufficient nutrients from the water. This was particularly true when the corals were exposed to nitrate, a compound that they are unable to process and assimilate on their own.

But most interestingly, the scientists observed that the algae act as tiny food banks. Their images revealed that the algae temporarily store the nitrogen in the form of uric acid crystals – a fact they later confirmed using crystallographic analysis. This way, the algae can stock up on nutrients when supply is abundant and draw on them when supply drops, leaching some out to their coral host.

Because coral reefs are at the foundation of immense economic activity, both as tourist magnets and as the habitats of some of the most productive fish populations, understanding their fate as the environment they inhabit changes is not only of ecological, but also of economic importance.

The research was performed in close collaboration with EPFL's Interdisciplinary Centre For Electron Microscopy (CIME), the Institute of Earth Science at the University of Lausanne, as well as the Aquarium Tropicale Porte Dorée and the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. The work is funded by an ERC Advanced grant and by a grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation.

Anders Meibom | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.epfl.ch

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds
26.05.2017 | Cornell University

nachricht How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system
26.05.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

First Juno science results supported by University of Leicester's Jupiter 'forecast'

26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>