Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Chemistry for Greenhouse Gases

16.12.2010
If fossil fuels burn completely, the end products are carbon dioxide and water. Today, the carbon dioxide is a waste product, one that goes into the air — adding to global warming; or the oceans — acidifying them; or underground — with as yet unknown consequences.

But it’s not impossible, says Liviu M. Mirica, PhD, assistant professor of chemistry in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis, to drive things the other way, turning carbon dioxide into fuels such as methanol or hydrocarbons.

Until now, reversing combustion has been a loser’s game because making carbon dioxide into a fuel uses up more energy than combustion releases and produces more carbon dioxide than it reclaims.

But Mirica thinks catalysts might change everything. Catalysts might provide alternative reaction pathways with lower energy barriers. The reactants then could be bumped over those lower barriers with carbonless energy sources such as sunlight.

Instead of being a polluting one-way street, hydrocarbon chemistry could circle back on itself and become a clean carbon-neutral cycle, although one that still consumed energy.

In the Journal of the American Chemical Society, Mirica describes a new metal complex that can combine methyl groups (CH3) in the presence of oxygen to produce ethane (CH3-CH3).

This is the second step in the conversation of methane (CH4), the main component of natural gas, into a longer-chain hydrocarbon, or liquid fuel.

Mirica’s team is currently tweaking the complex so that it will perform the first step in the methane-to-ethane conversion as well.

The energy problem

Fossil fuels are useful because they pack energy in their chemical bonds and release that energy when they are burned. So they’re essentially convenient little energy suitcases.

Reactions that release energy, however, are reluctant to reverse themselves and the more energy they release, the more reluctant they are to back up.

There’s no way around this problem; if a reaction released energy both going forward and going backward, it could fuel a perpetual motion machine, which, of course, is an impossibility.

Still, it is possible to make hydrocarbon combustion reactions run backward — either by brute force or by finesse.

The brute force way is to pump in energy. That’s how the Nazis turned coal into oil during World War II. Saddled with an abundance of coal but short on oil, Germany solved the problem by transmuting coal to oil by chemical means.

But Nazi synthetic oil plants worked only at high temperatures and pressures and much more energy was used to drive the reactions than was ultimately stored in synthetic oil they produced. (See caption in Image 2: The brute force method.)

The finesse is to devise a chemical compound, a catalyst, that takes the reactants up an alternative, lower energy pathway to the reaction products. In effect, instead of going straight up the energy hill, the reaction takes a more manageable — ideally the minimal-energy — series of switchbacks to the top.

Like a ball in a glove

Last year, Mirica’s group was working with a palladium compound that they hoped could catalyze the splitting of water. “The catalyst we made for that reaction worked,” Mirica says. “But not as well as we hoped. But we noticed it was easily oxidized, even by the oxygen in air.

“This was our first hint that this might be an interesting system. So then we asked, what else could we use it for?

“One of our ideas was to use it to turn methane into ethane,” Mirica says. Methane, the main component of natural gas, is released in large amounts when an oil well is tapped. Currently the methane from the oil fields is wasted; it is flared off on site, releasing even more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

Turning methane to ethane, Mirica says, could be the first step in a process of building longer-chain hydrocarbons such as butane and octane, which would be liquid at normal temperatures and pressures and so could easily be transported to distant users.

Mirica’s metal complex solves half the problem of methane-to-ethane conversion. It takes two methyl groups (CH3) and, in the presence of oxygen and light, binds the carbon atoms to one another to form ethane.

The complex consists of an organic molecule that binds a central palladium atom through four nitrogen atoms, holding it like a ball in a glove.

The organic molecule is key to the metal complex’s function, because it stabilizes it in the unusual “+3” oxidation state (it has given up three electrons), which is responsible for its unprecedented chemical activity.

Once in the glove, the palladium atom still has two docking spots that can be occupied by chemical species whose reaction it might catalyze.

In the reported work, these sites are occupied by methyl groups, which the palladium atom joins to produce ethane. But, Mirica emphasizes, the sites could easily be occupied by other chemical species. What’s more, the reactions could be reducing ones (where electrons are donated to reactants) rather than the oxidizing ones (where electrons are removed from reactants) like the methyl-to-ethane conversion.

In short, the complex opens up a whole new area of palladium chemistry.

The to-do list

Mirica’s lab is currently trying to tweak the metal complex so that it can perform the entire methane-to-ethane reaction.

The first part of that reaction is pulling methyl groups off methane molecules. That’s a bit tricky, says Mirica, because it is hard to break one C-H bond of the methane molecule, which has four C-H bonds, without breaking all four.

“The reaction wants to run straight down the energy hill all the way to the bottom (CO2),” Mirica says. “Our goal is to design a catalyst that stops the reaction part of the way down the hill (when only one hydrogen has been removed).

His lab also is testing the metal complex’s ability to perform a reduction reaction, the conversion of CO2 into methanol (CH3OH).

“Carbon dioxide is an exceptionally stable molecule, so anything you do with it is going to require energy,” Mirica says. “We’re just trying to use the metal complex to minimize the energy input.”

Both the ethane and methanol reactions take greenhouse gases and transform them to liquid or easily liquefied compounds that could then be reused as fuels. If the energy penalty turns out to be low enough, the carbon could be recycled in this way many times.

Chemistry for the greenhouse

Ultimately, Mirica’s goal is a recycling carbon chemistry that requires so little energy that it can run off sunlight.

“If we’re going to keep using these carbon-containing fuels that make CO2, we should be trying to make combustion carbon-neutral by using catalysts and the sun’s energy to convert CO2 back into fuel,” he says.

Diana Lutz | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.wustl.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Hunting pathogens at full force
22.03.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

nachricht A 155 carat diamond with 92 mm diameter
22.03.2017 | Universität Augsburg

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Pulverizing electronic waste is green, clean -- and cold

22.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Astronomers hazard a ride in a 'drifting carousel' to understand pulsating stars

22.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

New gel-like coating beefs up the performance of lithium-sulfur batteries

22.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>