Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Brain tumors fly under the body's radar like stealth jets, new U-M research suggests

07.08.2014

Extra protein on surface of early-stage glioma cells evades immune response

Brain tumors fly under the radar of the body's defense forces by coating their cells with extra amounts of a specific protein, new research shows.


In mice whose brain tumor cells (in green) couldn't make galectin-1, the body's immune system was able to recognize and attack the cells, causing them to die. In this microscope image, the orange areas show where tumor cells had died in just the first three days after the tumor was implanted in the brain. Six days later, the tumor had been eradicated.

Credit: University of Michigan Medical School

Like a stealth fighter jet, the coating means the cells evade detection by the early-warning immune system that should detect and kill them. The stealth approach lets the tumors hide until it's too late for the body to defeat them.

The findings, made in mice and rats, show the key role of a protein called galectin-1 in some of the most dangerous brain tumors, called high grade malignant gliomas. A research team from the University of Michigan Medical School made the discovery and has published it online in the journal Cancer Research.

In a stunning example of scientific serendipity, the team uncovered galectin-1's role by pursuing a chance finding. They had actually been trying to study how the extra production of galectin-1 by tumor cells affects cancer's ability to grow and spread in the brain.

... more about:
»Cancer »Health »ability »coating »dangerous »fly »glioma »immune »malignant »tumors

Instead, they found that when they blocked cancer cells from making galectin-1, the tumors were eradicated; they did not grow at all. That's because the "first responders" of the body's immune system – called natural killer or NK cells – spotted the tumor cells almost immediately and killed them.

But when the tumor cells made their usual amounts of galectin-1, the immune cells couldn't recognize the cancerous cells as dangerous. That meant that the immune system couldn't trigger the body's "second line of defense", called T cells – until the tumors had grown too large for the body to beat.

Team leader Pedro Lowenstein, M.D., Ph.D, of the U-M Department of Neurosurgery, says the findings open the door to research on the effect of blocking galectin-1 in patients with gliomas.

"This is an incredibly novel and exciting development, and shows that in science we must always be open-minded and go where the science takes us; no matter where we thought we wanted to go," says Lowenstein, whose graduate student Gregory J. Baker is the first author of the paper.

"In this case, we found that over-expression of galectin-1 inhibits the innate immune system, and this allows the tumor to grow enough to evade any possible effective T cell response," he explains. "By the time it's detected, the battle is already lost."

The NK-evading "stealth" function of the extra-thick coating of galectin-1 came as a surprise, because glioma researchers everywhere had assumed the extra protein had more to do with the insidious ability of gliomas to invade the brain, and to evade the attacks of T cells.

Gliomas, which make up about 80 percent of all malignant brain tumors, include anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and glioblastoma multiforme. More than 24,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with a primary malignant brain tumor each year.

The tiny tendrils of tumor that extend into brain tissue from a glioma are what make them so dangerous. Even when a neurosurgeon removes the bulk of the tumor, small invasive areas escape detection and keep growing, unchecked by the body.

Helping the innate immune system to recognize early stages of cancer growth, and sound the alarm for the body's defense system to act while the remaining cancer is still small enough for them to kill, could potentially help patients.

While the new discovery opens the door to that kind of approach, much work needs to be done before the mouse-based research could help human patients, says Lowenstein, who is the Richard Schneider Collegiate Professor in Neurosurgery and also holds an appointment in the U-M Department of Cell and Developmental Biology. Galectin-1 may help other types of tumor evade the innate NK cells, too

The new research suggests that in the brain's unique environment, galectin-1 creates an immunosuppressive effect immediately around tumor cells. The brain cancer cells seem to have evolved the ability to express their galectin-1 genes far more than normal, to allow the tumor to keep growing.

Lowenstein and co-team leader Maria Castro, Ph.D., have long studied the immune system's interactions with brain cancer, using funding from the National Institutes of Health, and are co-leading a new clinical trial for malignant glioma (NCT01811992), that aims to translate prior research achievements into new trials for patients with brain tumors.

Most brain tumor immune research has focused on triggering the action of the adaptive immune system – whose cells control the process that allows the body to kill invaders from outside or within.

But that system take days or even weeks to reach full force – enough time for incipient tumors to grow too large for immune cells to eliminate solid tumor growth. The new research suggests the importance of enhancing the ability of the innate immune system's "early warning" sentinels to spot glioma cells as early as possible.

###

Lowenstein, Castro, and Baker worked with U-M Cell & Developmental Biology and Biomedical Engineering researcher Sivaraj Sivaramakrishnan, Ph.D., on the new research. Co-authors are Peter Chockley, Viveka Nand Yadav, Ph.D., Robert Doherty and Michael Ritt.

The research was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders & Stroke (NS054193, NS061107, NS082311, NS052465, NS057711, NS074387).

Reference:

Cancer Research, OnlineFirst, doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-1203, http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2014/07/18/0008-5472.CAN-14-1203.abstract

For patients:

The U-M Neurooncology Program, part of the U-M Comprehensive Cancer Center, treats patients with all forms of brain cancer. For information on U-M clinical care and clinical trials for brain tumors, visit http://umhealth.me/btprogram or call 1-800-865-1125.

Kara Gavin | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.umich.edu

Further reports about: Cancer Health ability coating dangerous fly glioma immune malignant tumors

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Researchers uncover protein-based “cancer signature”
05.12.2016 | Universität Basel

nachricht The Nagoya Protocol Creates Disadvantages for Many Countries when Applied to Microorganisms
05.12.2016 | Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

IHP presents the fastest silicon-based transistor in the world

05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

InLight study: insights into chemical processes using light

05.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

High-precision magnetic field sensing

05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>