From bird flu to the West Nile virus, bird diseases can have a vast impact on humans. Thus, understanding bird immune systems can help people in a variety of ways, including protecting ourselves from disease and protecting our interests in birds as food animals.
An important element in the immune system of many animals’ immune systems—including mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and most animals with a backbone—is a protein called tristetraprolin, or TTP. TTP plays an anti-inflammatory role, largely through keeping another protein, called tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), in check.
Studies have shown that mice bred without TTP develop chronic inflammation that affects their entire bodies. Even animals missing TTP in just one immune cell type develop a catastrophic and deadly inflammation when they’re exposed to tiny amounts of a molecule from bacteria, underlying the importance of this protein. And yet, researchers have not been able to find TTP in birds.
Could birds really be that different from the vast majority of their closest animal relatives? To answer that question, researcher Perry Blackshear and his colleagues at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted a comprehensive examination, using several different methods to look for TTP in birds. Their results suggest that birds are truly an anomaly, having no analog for TTP in their immune systems.
Their article is entitled “Life Without TTP: Apparent Absence of an Important Anti-Inflammatory Protein in Birds” (http://bit.ly/1afLzwl). It appears in the Articles in PresS section of the American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology, published by the American Physiological Society.Methodology
“From an immunological standpoint,” the authors say, “it will be both interesting and important to determine how birds cope differently with the environmental and microbiological assaults that stimulate the acute innate immune response in mammals. This will be important to understand, both to protect birds from infections, and to protect man from bird-transmitted” viruses.Study Team
Donna Krupa | Newswise
Further reports about: > Comparative Physiology > Environmental Health Sciences > Health Sciences > Integrative Medizin > Protein > TTP > Tristetraprolin > West Nile virus > anti-inflammatory > bird diseases > bird genomes > environmental risk > immune cell > immune system > regulatory > tumor necrosis factor
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