Shocking news spread in August this year. Al Quaida, a terror organization, was reported to be producing bombs containing the poison ricin to attack shopping centers, airports, or train stations. Since the First World War, ricin has had a gruesome reputation as a bioweapon. It is one of the deadliest plant based poisons in the world. Even a tiny amount can kill a person within two to three days after getting into the bloodstream. And it comes from the humble castor oil bean, available in many health food shops or online.
How the poison works
Castor oil is a powerful laxative, used medicinally for centuries, but the raw beans also contain small amounts of the poison ricin. So far no antidote is available. But now Ulrich Elling, a scientist on the research team led by Prof Josef Penninger at the Institute for Molecular Biotechnology (IMBA) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, has identified a protein molecule called Gpr107. This protein in the targeted cells is essential for the deadly effect of ricin. In other words, cells which lack Gpr107 are immune to the poison.
Ulrich Elling is optimistic, saying "Our research suggests that a specific antidote could now be developed by making a small molecule to block the Gpr107 protein."
New technology allows screening of the entire mammal genome
The researchers at IMBA were able to find in just a few weeks what others have been trying to find for decades. Their rapid success was made possible by a pioneering new method of genetic research developed largely by Ulrich Elling and Josef Penninger. With this new method, an entire mammal genome can be screened for mutations within a reasonable time frame.
Until now, screening methods for mice, rats and other mammals have focused on finding one single mutation. This was done using a technique called RNA interference or by breeding a suitable ‘knock-out mouse’ to study the effect of removing a single gene. But RNA interference doesn't always work, and breeding a knock-out mouse takes years and considerable effort.
That's why Josef Penninger sees this powerful technology as a revolution in biomedicine. "We've now succeeded in combining the genetics of yeast, which has a single chromosome set that allows instant gene mutation, with stem cell biology”, he says. “For decades researchers have been looking for a system in mammals which would allow scientists to reconstruct millions of gene mutations simultaneously. We have solved the puzzle and even broke a paradigm in biology – we managed to make stable mouse stem cells with a single set of chromosomes and developed novel tools to use such stem cells to rapidly check virtually all genes at the same time for a specific function.”
This new technology helped Ulrich Elling in unraveling the toxic effect of ricin. He tested the poison in thousands of different mutations of mouse stem cells, and discovered that 49 different genetic mutations were present in one single protein, Gpr107. Obviously, a mutation in this protein saved the cells.
Combination with stem cell research reveals broad range of applications
The incredible potential in this discovery becomes even clearer in the light of stem cells' ability to transform into any cell in the human body. Josef Penninger is excited. "The possible uses of this discovery are endless. They range from fundamental issues, like which genes are necessary for the proper function of a heart muscle cell, to concrete applications as we have done in the case of ricin toxicity."
Penninger's team is already working on its next projects, including studies on how tumor cells acquire resistance to chemotherapy, a key issue in the development of cancer, and how nerve cells can regenerate, to offer hope in cases of paraplegia.
Notes to news editors:
The scientific study "Forward and Reverse Genetics through Derivation of Haploid Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells" appears in Cell Stem Cell on Friday 2 December 2011.
The study was conducted by an international consortium from Austria, Canada, Germany and the USA under the leadership of IMBA. Special thanks go to William Stanford from the Sprott Centre for Stem Cell Research at the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Harald von Melchner and Frank Schnütgen from the University of Cologne, Joseph Ecker from San Diego, and Johannes Zuber and Alex Stark from the IMP in Vienna.
The Institute for Molecular Biotechnology (IMBA) is a research institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften).
Screening: Systematic examination for defined criteria.
RNA interference: A mechanism in cells through which genes can be switched off.
Knock-out mouse: A mouse in which one or more genes have been deactivated. This genetic alteration is often apparent in the mouse's behavior or appearance. These mice are helpful as models for studying human diseases.
Contact and interview requests:Evelyn Devuyst, Communications IMBA - Institute of Molecular Biotechnology
Evelyn Devuyst | idw
Novel mechanisms of action discovered for the skin cancer medication Imiquimod
21.10.2016 | Technische Universität München
Second research flight into zero gravity
21.10.2016 | Universität Zürich
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences