Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A 'frenemy' in Parkinson's disease takes to crowdsourcing

30.09.2014

Protein regulates neuronal communication by self-association

The protein alpha-synuclein is a well-known player in Parkinson's disease and other related neurological conditions, such as dementia with Lewy bodies. Its normal functions, however, have long remained unknown. An enticing mystery, say researchers, who contend that understanding the normal is critical in resolving the abnormal.

Alpha-synuclein typically resides at presynaptic terminals – the communication hubs of neurons where neurotransmitters are released to other neurons. In previous studies, Subhojit Roy, MD, PhD, and colleagues at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine had reported that alpha-synuclein diminishes neurotransmitter release, suppressing communication among neurons. The findings suggested that alpha-synuclein might be a kind of singular brake, helping to prevent unrestricted firing by neurons. Precisely how, though, was a mystery.

Then Harvard University researchers reported in a recent study that alpha-synuclein self-assembles multiple copies of itself inside neurons, upending an earlier notion that the protein worked alone. And in a new paper, published this month in Current Biology, Roy, a cell biologist and neuropathologist in the departments of Pathology and Neurosciences, and co-authors put two and two together, explaining how these aggregates of alpha-synuclein, known as multimers, might actually function normally inside neurons.

First, they confirmed that alpha-synuclein multimers do in fact congregate at synapses, where they help cluster synaptic vesicles and restrict their mobility. Synaptic vesicles are essentially tiny packages created by neurons and filled with neurotransmitters to be released. By clustering these vesicles at the synapse, alpha-synuclein fundamentally restricts neurotransmission. The effect is not unlike a traffic light – slowing traffic down by bunching cars at street corners to regulate the overall flow.

"In normal doses, alpha-synuclein is not a mechanism to impair communication, but rather to manage it. However it's quite possible that in disease, abnormal elevations of alpha-synuclein levels lead to a heightened suppression of neurotransmission and synaptic toxicity," said Roy.

"Though this is obviously not the only event contributing to overall disease neuropathology, it might be one of the very first triggers, nudging the synapse to a point of no return. As such, it may be a neuronal event of critical therapeutic relevance."

Indeed, Roy noted that alpha-synuclein has become a major target for potential drug therapies attempting to reduce or modify its levels and activity.

###

Co-authors include Lina Wang, Utpal Das and Yong Tang, UCSD; David Scott, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Pamela J. McLean, Mayo Clinic-Jacksonville.

Funding support for this research came from National Institutes of Health (grant P50AG005131-project 2) and the UC San Diego Alzheimer's Disease Research Center.

Scott LaFee | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.ucsd.edu/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht BigH1 -- The key histone for male fertility
14.12.2017 | Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)

nachricht Guardians of the Gate
14.12.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

Im Focus: Successful Mechanical Testing of Nanowires

With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong

Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Plasmonic biosensors enable development of new easy-to-use health tests

14.12.2017 | Health and Medicine

New type of smart windows use liquid to switch from clear to reflective

14.12.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

BigH1 -- The key histone for male fertility

14.12.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>