New technologies such as satellite navigation, data link communication, and ADS-B (aircraft send out information about their position) have the potential to totally reform the routines involved in aviation by making it possible for one and the same system to run both navigation and monitoring. These tasks have traditionally been divided between pilots and air traffic controllers.
Air Traffic Management is the aggregate concept, and the technology has already been tested in planes in collaboration with airline companies in northern Europe.
“The present division of job tasks between the pilot and the air traffic controller is mainly based on the historical development and application of technological equipmentabove all radar technology.
The new technology allows information in the aviation system to be split up to a much greater extent. For example, air traffic controllers can gain greater insight into navigation in certain phases, while pilots can be responsible for staying out of the way of other aircraft,” says Fredrik Barchéus, who is finishing his doctorate at the Section for Industrial Work Science at KTH in Stockholm, Sweden.
His section describes the basic properties of present-day and new technologies, procedures in civil aviation, and how tasks and responsibilities are distributed between pilots and air traffic controllers. Interviews with air traffic controllers from several European countries have shown that there is some concern about the future in terms of where the responsibility will lie in various situations, and how it can be transferred in a safe manner.
“New technology forces us to develop appropriate procedures to allow us to continue to fly safely. One key aspect is how the exchange of information should take place between air traffic controllers and pilots. Both data link and radio are possible modes, or even a combination of both,” says Fredrik Barchéus.
Observations from simulations in which the new technology was tested by pilots and air traffic controllers show both pros and cons for both communication modes. Transferring numbers via data link reduces the risk of misunderstanding in one way, while radio communication allows the air traffic controller to tell from the pilot’s tone of voice whether he understood an instruction. If not, the instruction can be repeated in a different way.
The technology already exists and can be implemented as soon as airlines and civil aviation authorities are ready to make the change. The obstacle at present is that airlines are busy coping with the stiff competition in the air travel market and have no economic incentive to invest in the technology. But down the road the authorities are going to want to replace various national systems with a common European set-up under the motto “A Single European Sky.”
“Regardless of when a change is effected, it’s important for future technological development to be carried out in international collaboration and for developers to place great emphasis on human factors such as procedures, phraseology, and training of pilots and air traffic controllers when the technology is introduced,” stresses Fredrik Barchéus.
Title of dissertation: Who is responsible? Communication, coordination and collaboration in the future Air Traffic Management system
Magnus Myrén | alfa
Information integration and artificial intelligence for better diagnosis and therapy decisions
24.05.2017 | Fraunhofer MEVIS - Institut für Bildgestützte Medizin
World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world
18.05.2017 | RMIT University
The world's highest gain high power laser amplifier - by many orders of magnitude - has been developed in research led at the University of Strathclyde.
The researchers demonstrated the feasibility of using plasma to amplify short laser pulses of picojoule-level energy up to 100 millijoules, which is a 'gain'...
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
29.05.2017 | Earth Sciences
29.05.2017 | Life Sciences
29.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy