Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Incineration as a fuel source

03.03.2006


Enormous benefit for humans and without harming the environment can be extracted from domestic waste, old car wheel casings, industrial wastes and even silt, that remain after cleaning sewage outflows. It transpires that all this can successfully be turned into light and heat when incinerated, under methodology, developed by scientists from Chernogolovka in the Moscow Region, staff from the Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics RAS. The scientists were aided by the International Science and Technology Centre and the Russian Fund for Fundamental Research. The research is headed by RAS Corresponding Member Georgi Manelis.



This technology has a rather complicated name – filtration combustion with superadiabatic warm-up. The essence of the development lies in the fact that all of the so-called pseudo-fuel is first transformed to gas in an airflow; then this gas is combusted. As a result we get the same light and heat for which to date it has been necessary to literally let natural gas, coal and oil go up in smoke, fuel reserves which are far from endless in supply.

Externally the main part of the installation is a vertical shaft furnace, filled with these waste products that have to be processed. From below the pipe is blasted with air. This is where the ash is poured in – the mineral residue that does not burn at all. From above, as necessary, new portions of what in a domestic sense you would not call fuel are added into the pipe; these include poor coal, for example, in which there is so little carbon that you cannot make then burn easily.


The particular feature of the installation is that the walls of the shaft furnace, the gasifier, do not allow even a little of the heat obtained from the combustion of the waste to disperse into the surrounding space. From below the front of smouldering rather than burning, air blows heated ash onto the lower sections of the pipe. As a result the temperature of the process becomes pretty high, superadiabatic, meaning it is greater than under regular heating in a closed space. And now it is sufficient for all the compounds which contain carbon atoms to either burn or be subjected to pyrolysis, as if splitting into pieces, which is what happens if there is insufficient oxygen for combustion. The soot from burning car wheel casings that we all know well are indeed the very same products of this pyrolysis; only in the installation devised by the scientists, they enter at the second stage of the reprocessing.

Thus, at the first stage gasification takes place in superadiabatic regime; in other words, the transformation of carbon-containing wastes into so-called generating gas. The molecules that make it up store a fair amount of heat and the non-combustible slag has already poured into the bottom of the furnace. A gas like this will combust wonderfully in a power-generating installation, giving the much needed heat and electricity.

“Our method has very high performance efficiency, almost 95%, and a record high ecological cleanliness,” explains Candidate of Physics and Mathematics Valery Steinberg, Head of Department of Combustion and Detonation of the Institute Problems of Chemical Physics RAS, where the basis of the technology was created. Such incineration, performed in phases, and the high temperatures facilitate the practical suppression of the formation of dioxins. Their content in the furnace gases, without any additional purification, amounts to ten-thousandths of a microgram per cubic metre of smoke; an excellent figure.”

What is also surprising is that the method is incredibly non-demanding in terms of the primary fuel. Naturally, the air supply regime and certain other parameters have to be selected for each specific type of waste that predominates in the combustible mass. However, under the new technology, almost everything burns: domestic rubbish, oil slime and oil-refinery wastes, wheel casings, plastic, just as wastes from the coal mining and coal refinery, pulp and paper, chemical and paint-varnish industries, providing us with heat and with light.

Andrew Vakhliaev | alfa
Further information:
http://tech-db.istc.ru/istc/sc.nsf/events/fuel-source

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Conservationists are sounding the alarm: parrots much more threatened than assumed
15.09.2017 | Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

nachricht A new indicator for marine ecosystem changes: the diatom/dinoflagellate index
21.08.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity

22.09.2017 | Life Sciences

Penn first in world to treat patient with new radiation technology

22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering

Calculating quietness

22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>