Based on the analysis of the extreme heat wave and drought in Europe during the summer of 2003, CEA-CNRS and INRA researchers have studied the impact of climatic change on terrestrial ecosystems. These results were obtained using a unique monitoring network measuring carbon and water fluxes in a representative set of forests and prairies in Europe, and with an atmospheric modelling system.
The scientific community generally considers that global warming in the 21st century will lead to an increase in vegetable productivity in Europe and temperate latitudes, among other reasons due to carbon sequestration by vegetation and the extension of the growth period during the spring. The results obtained by researchers show that, on the contrary, strong droughts such as those experienced in 2003 have a negative effect on biomass production and ecosystem functioning.
Looking at the year 2003 within the context of the climatic changes since the last century, researchers have observed that the heat and drought have caused an unprecedented decrease of 30% in vegetable activity throughout the European continent, leading to an abnormal discharge of CO2 into the atmosphere. The extreme temperatures and especially the exceptional deficit in precipitation accelerated the drying of soils and produced altered photosynthesis, with effects that lasted until the fall. Instead of increasing with the increase in temperature, the respiration of ecosystems has decreased along with the decrease in vegetable production.
The researchers feel that it is still too soon to assess the long-term damage to vegetation (resistance to pathogens, dying of trees, changes in vegetation, impact on agriculture, etc.). With simulations of future climatic changes predicting that such events will become more frequent over the century, these results raise important questions on the capacity of our ecosystems to withstand climatic changes and on the measures to be taken to facilitate this adaptation.
Célie Simeray | alfa
Upcycling 'fast fashion' to reduce waste and pollution
03.04.2017 | American Chemical Society
Litter is present throughout the world’s oceans: 1,220 species affected
27.03.2017 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
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