By applying novel measurement techniques from a high-altitude aircraft, scientists detected two species of invading plants that are changing the ecology of rain forest near the Kilauea Volcano in the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Lead author, Dr. Gregory Asner of the Carnegie Institutions Department of Global Ecology, explained: "We found chemical fingerprints from the plant leaves and used them to tell which species dominated specific areas. We employed the recently upgraded NASA Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to measure leaf nitrogen and water content from the aircraft, and corroborated the data on the ground. The fingerprints showed where the native dominant tree ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) has been taken over by the invading Canary Islands tree, Myrica faya, and more importantly identified areas where Myrica invasion is in its early stages. The aircraft imagery also showed us how the forest canopy chemistry is changing as a result of the invader." The study is published in the March 7-11, 2005, early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Traditional remote sensing of the forest canopy is shown at on the bottom. The middle and top images are the outputs from the new analytical techniques used in the study. They show canopy water content and leaf nitrogen concentration from high-altitude airborne imaging spectroscopy. (Image courtesy Gregory Asner.)
The new methods are exciting because they detect effects of biological invasions on ecosystems, not just the presence of an invader. Islands like Hawaii are vulnerable to biological invasion; new species can wreak havoc very quickly. The fact that the new techniques allowed the scientists to detect an invader before it dominated the landscape is important to future management strategies. As a result of the findings, the group has expanded to include collaborators from federal, state, and private organizations. Scientists and resource managers from Carnegie, Stanford University, the U.S. National Park Service, NASA, and The Nature Conservancy have teamed up with an unprecedented plan to map the chemical and structural composition of Hawaiian ecosystems and to find invasive species and track their ecological impacts. This month, Carnegie global ecologists and engineers from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory are flying an upgraded version of the AVIRIS airborne spectrometer on a more nimble Twin Otter turboprop aircraft, not only to find invasive species, but to develop the next generation of ecosystem monitoring capabilities.
On Kilauea Volcano, the native Metrosideros tree typically has a low concentration of nitrogen in its leaves ( .6% to .8%), while the invading Canary Islands tree has relatively high nitrogen concentration (1.5% to 1.8%), because it can acquire nitrogen from the atmosphere.
Dr. Gregory Asner | EurekAlert!
Invasive Insects Cost the World Billions Per Year
04.10.2016 | University of Adelaide
Malaysia's unique freshwater mussels in danger
27.09.2016 | The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus
Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.
This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...
Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion
Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
27.10.2016 | Materials Sciences
27.10.2016 | Physics and Astronomy
27.10.2016 | Life Sciences