Vaccines are used in aquaculture to avoid outbreaks of infection from bacteria and viruses. If given at the start of the sea-water phase, oil-based vaccines provide protection against bacterial infection for the entire life in the animal.
However, oil-based vaccines produce local side-effects in the form of pigmentation and adhesions between internal organs, which in some cases are severe enough to reduce the carcase quality at slaughter. The underlying mechanisms of side-effect development are little known.
Stephen Mutoloki discovered that the reaction to the vaccine, and especially to the bacterial component of the vaccine, comes in several “waves”. These waves consist of cells that migrate to the injection site, and in the van of these is the “rapid-response troop”, the neutrophilic granulocytes. These are followed by the “clean-up team”, the macrophages, and later still by the cells that provide the actual protection against disease later in life, the lymphocytes.
This is the same sequence one finds in a natural infection and is the result of a collaboration between the processes of inflammation and of immunity. How aggressive the reaction within the tissue is, depends on how many granulocytes that are involved and how many clean-up cells arrive.
The main findings in Dr. Mutoloki’s work show that the species has a lot to say for how effectively the “clean-up” progresses. The rainbow trout has in general more effective cleaning-up cells, while the Atlantic salmon does a poorer job with a correspondingly greater and longer-lasting tissue reaction. The clean-up phase is also affected by the vaccine’s composition, that is, the more unrefined a vaccine, the more inflammatory cells that will accumulate and the greater the tissue reaction.
The type of antigen in the vaccine is also significant. Moritella viscosa is, for example, more difficult to clean up after than Aeromonas salmonicida. And if the vaccinated fish uses more resources to clean up than to create immunity against future infections, the tissue relation may become too dominating and produce unwanted side-effects.
Magnhild Jenssen | alfa
Global threat to primates concerns us all
19.01.2017 | Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH - Leibniz-Institut für Primatenforschung
Reducing household waste with less energy
18.01.2017 | FIZ Karlsruhe – Leibniz-Institut für Informationsinfrastruktur GmbH
For the first time ever, a cloud of ultra-cold atoms has been successfully created in space on board of a sounding rocket. The MAIUS mission demonstrates that quantum optical sensors can be operated even in harsh environments like space – a prerequi-site for finding answers to the most challenging questions of fundamental physics and an important innovation driver for everyday applications.
According to Albert Einstein's Equivalence Principle, all bodies are accelerated at the same rate by the Earth's gravity, regardless of their properties. This...
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
23.01.2017 | Health and Medicine
23.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
23.01.2017 | Process Engineering