Researchers at Yale University, the Carnegie Institution of Washington and the University of Sheffield now show that land plants saved the Earth from a deep frozen fate by buffering the removal of atmospheric CO2 over the past 24 million years.
"Mountain building in places like Tibet and South America during the past 25 million years created conditions that should have sucked nearly all the CO2 out of the atmosphere, throwing the Earth into a deep freeze," said senior author Mark Pagani, associate professor of geology and geophysics and a member of the Yale Climate and Energy Institute's executive committee. "But as the CO2 concentration of Earth's atmosphere decreased to about 200 to 250 parts per million, CO2 levels stabilized."
The study, published in the XX issue of Nature, looked for a possible explanation They used simulations of the global carbon cycle and observations from plant growth experiments to show that as atmospheric CO2 concentrations began to drop towards near-starvation levels for land plants, the capacity of plants and vegetation to weather silicate rocks greatly diminished, slowing the draw-down of atmospheric CO2.
"When CO2 levels become suffocatingly low, plant growth is compromised and the health of forest ecosystems suffer," said Pagani. "When this happens, plants can no longer help remove CO2 from the atmosphere faster than volcanoes and other sources can supply it."
"Ultimately, we owe another large debt to plants" said co-author Ken Caldeira from the Carnegie Institution of Washington at Stanford University. "Aside from providing zesty dishes like eggplant parmesan, plants have also stabilized Earth's climate by inhibiting critically low levels of CO2 that would have thrown Earth spinning into space like a frozen ice ball."
Co-author David Beerling from Sheffield University adds, "Our research supports the emerging view that plants should be recognized as a geologic force of nature, with important consequences for all life on Earth"
Robert Berner, professor emeritus of geology and geophysics at Yale, is also an author on the study. The Yale Climate and Energy Institute; the National Science Foundation; the Department of Energy; the Leverhulme Trust and a Royal Society-Wolfson Research Merit Award supported the research.
The Yale Climate and Energy Institute (YCEI) is a newly established interdisciplinary institute focused on bridging research and policy around climate and energy issues so that practical solutions can be implemented in both the developing and developed world.
An interview with Mark Pagani is available at http://tinyurl.com/yale-pagani-052909
Citation: Nature, (doi:10.1038/nature08133)
Suzanne Taylor Muzzin | EurekAlert!
Dispersal of Fish Eggs by Water Birds – Just a Myth?
19.02.2018 | Universität Basel
Removing fossil fuel subsidies will not reduce CO2 emissions as much as hoped
08.02.2018 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.
Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.
Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.
Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...
Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.
The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...
Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.
Certain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the bone marrow of adults are considered extremely promising for skeletal tissue regeneration. These adult stem...
In the fight against cancer, scientists are developing new drugs to hit tumor cells at so far unused weak points. Such a “sore spot” is the protein complex...
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
09.04.2018 | Event News
20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
20.04.2018 | Interdisciplinary Research
20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy