In addition, institutional mechanisms to enhance synergies in forests and water administrations are needed at national and regional levels.
These key messages to the decision makers were formed during the international conference “Water and Forests: a convenient truth?” held in October 2008. The conference gathered together renowned scientists to addressed the topic not only at a global level, but also highlighting the situation in the Mediterranean area.
The conference agreed that it is clear that forests are linked to water yield. Forests use more water than shorter types of vegetation caused by their higher evaporation. Water use efficiency differs between forest species; and soil water availability fluctuates at each stand. Canopies protect the ground from runoff which also means higher interception. Root systems influence the groundwater recharge. Consequently, forest management practices should be adjusted to reach desired impacts on water by using a mix of different tree species and of varying ages, or by designing forest structure and open areas (e.g. from harvesting). Follow up of such measures is required as it is essential to determine the influences of forest management actions in water at each stand.
One of the other main findings shows that global climate models predict marked changes in seasonal snow- and rainfall with more uncertainties than in temperatures. Also, they forecast a significant decrease in rainfall in the Mediterranean basin and an increase of rainfall during in winters in Central and Northern Europe.
Therefore, when designing large-scale forest plantations for C sequestration, water shortage should not be accentuated. Shade provided by riparian forests may help reduce thermal stress to aquatic life as climate warming intensifies.
Mercedes Rois | alfa
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Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
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Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
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