In addition, institutional mechanisms to enhance synergies in forests and water administrations are needed at national and regional levels.
These key messages to the decision makers were formed during the international conference “Water and Forests: a convenient truth?” held in October 2008. The conference gathered together renowned scientists to addressed the topic not only at a global level, but also highlighting the situation in the Mediterranean area.
The conference agreed that it is clear that forests are linked to water yield. Forests use more water than shorter types of vegetation caused by their higher evaporation. Water use efficiency differs between forest species; and soil water availability fluctuates at each stand. Canopies protect the ground from runoff which also means higher interception. Root systems influence the groundwater recharge. Consequently, forest management practices should be adjusted to reach desired impacts on water by using a mix of different tree species and of varying ages, or by designing forest structure and open areas (e.g. from harvesting). Follow up of such measures is required as it is essential to determine the influences of forest management actions in water at each stand.
One of the other main findings shows that global climate models predict marked changes in seasonal snow- and rainfall with more uncertainties than in temperatures. Also, they forecast a significant decrease in rainfall in the Mediterranean basin and an increase of rainfall during in winters in Central and Northern Europe.
Therefore, when designing large-scale forest plantations for C sequestration, water shortage should not be accentuated. Shade provided by riparian forests may help reduce thermal stress to aquatic life as climate warming intensifies.
Mercedes Rois | alfa
Upcycling 'fast fashion' to reduce waste and pollution
03.04.2017 | American Chemical Society
Litter is present throughout the world’s oceans: 1,220 species affected
27.03.2017 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
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