Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Emissions from energy use in the water sector are poorly understood

27.06.2011
Greater understanding is needed of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy use in the water sector if it is to meet sustainability goals, according to researchers at the University of East Anglia (UEA).

In a study published online today in Nature Climate Change, Prof Declan Conway and Sabrina Rothausen argue that greater focus on the energy requirements of the water sector will be a crucial part of the policy response to the huge challenges it faces in the coming decades.

Transparency in the water industry's energy use is also likely to be important for it to meet carbon-reduction commitments while responding to other measures of sustainability, such as the need for stricter quality standards and increasing demand.

To date, much attention has been given to the need for sustainable water resource management, but far less to the growing energy use and associated emissions from the water sector, for example through processes involved in water treatment and distribution and domestic heating of water.

"Pressures on water management include stricter water-quality standards, increasing demand for water and the need to adapt to climate change, while reducing emissions of GHGs," said Prof Conway, professor of water resources and climate change.

"The processes of abstraction, transport and treatment of fresh water and wastewater all demand energy. Adapting water management to meet increasing demand, regulatory standards and the effects of climate change will in many cases require greater energy use."

He added: "Energy use in the water sector is growing, yet its importance is under-recognized, and gaps remain in our knowledge. In this study we define the need to integrate energy use further into water resource management and identify opportunities for the water sector to understand and describe more effectively its role in GHG emissions, through regulatory and behavioural responses, to meet future challenges."

Some recent studies have highlighted the importance of GHG emissions from energy use in the water sector. They show that water-related energy use in the US accounts for nearly 5% of total GHG emissions, and the proportion is even higher in the UK, although there it is mostly associated with end uses of water, such as heating. In countries with very high freshwater withdrawals, most of the water is used for irrigation and the energy used in its extraction and transport is often considerable. Estimates for India suggest that emissions from lifting water for irrigation could be as much as 6% of total national emissions.

Climate change represents a huge challenge to the sustainable management of water resources. In recent decades, developments in industrial, agricultural and domestic water use, and in water-quality regulation, have greatly intensified the treatment and transport of water. Moreover, rising demand for food and biofuels, and their international trade, threaten to drive expansion of irrigated cropland and cropping intensity and hence greater use of water for agriculture. These activities generally require high energy consumption and have contributed to increases in energy use in the water sector in many parts of the world.

The 'perfect storm' scenario of sustaining increases in food production given climate change impacts and the need to reduce GHG emissions, together with increasing competition for water, provides a strong rationale for better integration of water and energy use.

There is also a need to achieve better connections between mitigation and adaptation. Consideration of alternative water supply systems, treatment technologies or water allocation may have a tendency to overlook the carbon cost; some measures regarded as sustainable water management, such as desalination, are very energy intensive. This is particularly the case in the absence of regulatory pressure, as is currently the case in most countries.

In Greenhouse-gas emissions from energy use in the water sector, Prof Conway and Ms Rothausen, of the School of International Development, quantify energy use in the water sector and detail the extent of current knowledge on emissions from the water sector and agricultural water use. Their review shows that energy use and GHG emissions in the sector are under-recognized, in part because of differences in the scope of water-sector boundaries, data availability, methodological approaches and whether results are expressed as energy use or GHG emissions.

Ms Rothausen explained: "Although end use often has the highest energy use of all water-sector elements, it has not traditionally been seen as a direct part of the water sector and is often unaccounted for in water management and policy.

"What evidence there is shows that energy use in the water sector is considerable and growing. This growth is likely to continue, sometimes as an unintended policy outcome, with greater pressure to use and maintain quality of water resources. Despite some recent progress, we need to better understand and profile the role of the water sector as a GHG emitter. A co-ordinated view of the water sector will promote more comprehensive assessments of energy use, while standardized methodologies will enable comparisons between assessments of different technologies and processes, and between regions or countries."

Greenhouse-gas emissions from energy use in the water sector is published online on June 26 in Nature Climate Change (DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1147).

Press office | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uea.ac.uk

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Value from wastewater
16.08.2017 | Hochschule Landshut

nachricht Species Richness – a false friend? Scientists want to improve biodiversity assessments
01.08.2017 | Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>