A new Rice University-led study finds that a deep connection about 50 miles underground can explain the enigmatic behavior of two of Earth's most notable volcanoes, Hawaii's Mauna Loa and Kilauea.
A plume of magmatic gases rises from a vent that formed in 2008 within Halema'uma'u Crater, which is located within Kilauea's summit caldera.
Credit: CREDIT: M. Poland/USGS HVO
The study, the first to model paired volcano interactions, explains how a link in Earth's upper mantle could account for Kilauea and Mauna Loa's competition for the same deep magma supply and their simultaneous "inflation," or bulging upward, during the past decade.
The study appears in the November issue of Nature Geoscience.
The research offers the first plausible model that can explain both the opposing long-term eruptive patterns at Mauna Loa and Kilauea -- when one is active the other is quiet -- as well as the episode in 2003-2007 when GPS records showed that each bulged notably due to the pressure of rising magma. The study was conducted by scientists at Rice University, the University of Hawaii, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Carnegie Institution of Washington.
"We know both volcanoes are fed by the same hot spot, and over the past decade we've observed simultaneous inflation, which we interpret to be the consequence of increased pressure of the magma source that feeds them," said lead author Helge Gonnermann, assistant professor of Earth science at Rice University. "We also know there are subtle chemical differences in the lava that each erupts, which means each has its own plumbing that draws magma from different locations of this deep source."In the GPS records, we first see inflation at Kilauea and then about a half a year later at Mauna Loa," he said. "Our hypothesis is that the pressure is transmitted slowly through a partially molten and thereby porous region of the asthenosphere, which would account for the simultaneous inflation and the lag time in inflation. Because changes in pore pressure are transmitted between both volcanoes at a faster rate than the rate of magma flow within the porous region, this can also explain how both volcanoes are dynamically coupled, while being supplied by different parts of the same source region."
"When we fitted the deformation, which tells us how much a volcano inflates and deflates, and the lava eruption rate at Kilauea, we found that our model could simultaneously match the deformation signal recorded over on Mauna Loa," said James Foster, co-author and assistant researcher at the University of Hawaii School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology. "The model also required an increase in the magma supply rate to the deep system that matched very nicely with our interpretations and the increased magma supply suggested by the jump in CO2 emissions that occurred in late 2003."
Mauna Loa and Kilauea, Earth's largest and most active volcanoes, respectively, are located about 22 miles apart in the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawaii. They are among the planet's most-studied and best-instrumented volcanoes and have been actively monitored by scientists at USGS's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) since 1912. Kilauea has erupted 48 times on HVO's watch, with a nearly continuous flank eruption since 1983. Mauna Loa has erupted 12 times in the same period, most recently in 1984.
"To continue this research, we submitted a proposal to the National Science Foundation (NSF) earlier this summer to extend our study back in time to cover the last 50 years," Foster said. "We plan to refine the model to include further details of the magma transport within each volcano and also explore how some known prehistoric events and some hypothetical events at one volcano might impact the other. This work should help improve our understanding of volcanic activity of each volcano."
Gonnermann said there has been disagreement among Earth scientists about the potential links between adjacent volcanoes, and he is hopeful the new model could be useful in studying other volcanoes like those in Iceland or the Galapagos Islands.
"At this point it is unclear whether Hawaii is unique or whether similar volcano coupling may exist at other locations," Gonnermann said. "Given time and ongoing advances in volcano monitoring, we can test if similar coupling between adjacent volcanoes exists elsewhere."
Study co-authors include Michael Poland and Asta Miklius, both of HVO; Benjamin Brooks of the University of Hawaii; and Cecily Wolfe of the University of Hawaii and the Carnegie Institution of Washington.
The research was supported by the USGS and the NSF. The Kilauea and Mauna Loa GPS networks are supported by grants from the USGS, NSF and NASA and operated in collaboration by the USGS, Stanford University and the Pacific GPS Facility at the University of Hawaii.
The following images are available for download at:http://news.rice.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/1025_HAWAII_plume-med.jpg
CREDIT: M. Poland/USGS HVOhttp://news.rice.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/1025_HAWAII_dark-med.jpg
CREDIT: M. Poland/USGS HVOhttp://news.rice.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/1025_HAWAII_ERZ2-lg.jpg
Jade Boyd | EurekAlert!
Receding glaciers in Bolivia leave communities at risk
20.10.2016 | European Geosciences Union
UM researchers study vast carbon residue of ocean life
19.10.2016 | University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences