Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Sophisticated Soil Analysis for Improved Land Use

03.06.2008
Researchers investigated different components of variation in soil at diverse scales ranging from the nanoscale to entire biomes in order to improve predictions of soil processes. Scientists used a variety of mathematical approaches to explore patterns of soil properties including water content, water movement, corn yields, and remote sensing data.

Soil variation occurs across multiple geographic scales ranging from vast climatic regions of the Earth to a 50 acre farm field to the molecular world of soil nano-particles in a pinch of soil.

For example, in a forest or an agricultural field, soil properties vary from the summit of a hill down to the base. Within a single soil aggregate that may be less than a quarter inch in diameter, there is a variable distribution of open spaces (soil pores), solids (soil particles), and water and gas molecules, and within each of the elements themselves there is variation, such as different pore shapes and different elemental solids.

Many approaches have been used to examine soil variation at these diverse scales, but there is a common difficulty among methods in separating out random variations from systematic variations. Some of the variation observed in, say, a desert community or a handful of soil is random, but other variation is predictable (systematic) based on variables such as landscape position, climate, or time of the year.

New methodological developments better enable us to separate out these different sources of variation by examining soil variability over a range of scales, which is important for linking soil properties with soil processes. These linkages have important predictive capacities, such as forecasting corn yields based on soil characteristics, or understanding where microorganisms live in soil and how human alteration to certain soil properties affects their livelihood.

Scientists from USDA-ARS-NSTL in Iowa, The University of Tennessee, and E.T.S. Ingenieros Agrónomos in Spain have assembled a collection of 12 papers covering a range of original approaches for assessing soil variability across multiple scales. The papers are published in a special section of the May 2008 issue of Vadose Zone Journal.

A variety of multi-scale methods are described and some authors compared the performance of different approaches. The methodologies employed include a variety of sophisticated mathematical approaches including geostatistics (variance of a property depends upon its position in space) and fractals and multi-fractals (similar patterns at different scales), to name a few. The authors then applied these different multi-scale methods to diverse data sets including soil pore shapes, soil aggregates, water content, rate of water movement, gas fluxes, corn yields, geochemical data, and remote sensing data.

“Understanding the interrelationships between physical, chemical, and biological factors at different scales is essential for research in agriculture, engineering, hydrology, and the environment,” says researcher Dr. Sally Logsdon of the USDA-ARS, National Soil Tilth Laboratory, Ames, IA. “Future research should examine how to better mesh together soil data and predictions across landscape position and time scales.”

The full article is available for no charge for 30 days following the date of this summary. View the abstract at http://vzj.scijournals.org/cgi/content/full/7/2/453.

Vadose Zone Journal, http://www.vadosezonejournal.org/ is a unique publication outlet for interdisciplinary research and assessment of the biosphere, with a focus on the vadose zone, the mostly unsaturated zone between the soil surface and the permanent groundwater table. VZJ is a peer-reviewed, international, online journal publishing reviews, original research, and special sections across a wide range of disciplines that involve the vadose zone, including those that address broad scientific and societal issues. VZJ is published by Soil Science Society of America, with Geological Society of America as a cooperator.

The Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) is a progressive, international scientific society that fosters the transfer of knowledge and practices to sustain global soils. Based in Madison, WI, and founded in 1936, SSSA is the professional home for 6,000+ members dedicated to advancing the field of soil science. It provides information about soils in relation to crop production, environmental quality, ecosystem sustainability, bioremediation, waste management, recycling, and wise land use.

SSSA supports its members by providing quality research-based publications, educational programs, certifications, and science policy initiatives via a Washington, DC, office. For more information, visit http://www.soils.org.

SSSA is the founding sponsor of an approximately 5,000-square foot exhibition, Dig It! The Secrets of Soil, opening July 19, 2008 at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC.

Sara Uttech | newswise
Further information:
http://vzj.scijournals.org/cgi/content/full/7/2/453
http://www.vadosezonejournal.org/
http://www.soils.org

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Stagnation in the South Pacific Explains Natural CO2 Fluctuations
23.02.2018 | Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg

nachricht First evidence of surprising ocean warming around Galápagos corals
22.02.2018 | University of Arizona

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Attoseconds break into atomic interior

A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.

In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...

Im Focus: Good vibrations feel the force

A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.

By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...

Im Focus: Developing reliable quantum computers

International research team makes important step on the path to solving certification problems

Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...

Im Focus: In best circles: First integrated circuit from self-assembled polymer

For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.

In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Basque researchers turn light upside down

23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Finnish research group discovers a new immune system regulator

23.02.2018 | Health and Medicine

Attoseconds break into atomic interior

23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>