Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists design the first map of active faults in the Gibraltar Arc to prevent earthquakes

06.02.2008
Africa and Europe get about 4 mm closer every year in a northeast convergence direction. The exact position and geometry of the boundary between the African and Eurasian plates is unknown, but it is located near the Gibraltar Arc — an area of intense seismic activity which was not studied deeply until now.

A group of researchers from the Andalusian Institute for Earth Sciences (CSIC) and the Department of Geodynamics of the University of Granada described for the first time the physical and mechanical properties of the uppermost part of the Earth’s crust — to a depth of 30 km which is where the highest magnitude earthquakes occur. This study has made it possible to establish the exact position of the active faults of the Gibraltar Arc area which cause earthquakes, thus obtaining valuable geological information which could help determine the areas in which earthquakes are most likely to occur.

The author of this study is Fermín Fernández Ibáñez, whose doctoral thesis Sismicidad, reología y estructura térmica de la corteza del Arco de Gibraltar (Seismicity, reology and thermal structure of the Gibraltar Arc crust) was directed by researchers Juan Ignacio Soto Hermoso and José Molares Soto. This study, which was carried out within the CSIC project entitled The Gibraltar Arc System: Active Geodynamic Processes in the South-Iberian Margins (SAGAS), made the most comprehensive radiography so far in the faults of the Alboran Sea, the westernmost portion of the Mediterranean Sea.

The researchers characterised a region of intense deformation in which the relative movement of blocks is caused by left-lateral strike-slip faults known as “the Transalboran fault system,” which expands from Murcia (Spain) to Alhucemas (Morocco). The other significant fault of the Gibraltar Arc area, which crosses the Transalboran fault perpendicularly, is called Nerja-Yusuf and goes from Málaga (Spain) to the Algerian coast.

Study of oil wells

Fernández and Soto assure that the south of the Iberian Peninsula and the north of Africa are very similar in geology. In order to characterise the way the Gibraltal Arc is being deformed due to pushing plates, the researchers studied oil wells, analysing the disfigurations caused by these forces.

This doctoral thesis could help to prevent natural disasters like the one that occurred in Indonesia in 2004, when a tsunami killed more than 300,000 people and flooded entire cities. In any case, researcher Fernández stated that although the Gibraltar Arc is an area of intense seismic activity and the movements of the faults could produce tsunamis, it is almost impossible that such a phenomenon would occur.

In addition, the study conducted at UGR related for the first time the temperature of the Earth’s crust to its seismic activity, thus determining that the probability of earthquakes is significantly lower in areas of higher temperature. Therefore, the western area of Sierra Nevada and Alhucemas (which are located within the Gibraltar Arc) is the area in which most earthquakes occur due to low temperatures in the Earth’s crust, while the area of Almería (Spain) and the eastern area of the Alboran Sea will probably experience fewer seismic movements.

Results from this interesting study were published in renowned scientific journals like the Journal of Geophysical Research or Tectonics. The research group in which researchers Fernández and Soto participate is a member of Topo-Iberia, an important project which aims at creating an unprecedented temporal seismic broadband net in Spain, composed by a minimum of 80 seismic stations 50-60 km apart and which will have simultaneous and homogenous coverage in different regions. Furthermore, Topo-Iberia will create the biggest Spanish GPS net ever created.

Antonio Marín Ruiz | alfa
Further information:
http://prensa.ugr.es/prensa/research/verNota/prensa.php?nota=465

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>