In the past decades, the field campaign and research program were only conducted at a few sites in China by different agencies. However, none of those measurements could effectively document spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric CO2 and provide essential information for our understanding of regional differences and distributions over China.
Thus, it is essential to establish a long-term observational network at multiple sites and carefully calibrate on internationally agreed reference scales with better quality controls.
Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences in Beijing initiated network observation at the four Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) stations in China: Waliguan (36.29ºN, 100.90ºE, 3816m asl) in remote western China, Shangdianzi (40.39ºN, 117.07ºE, 293.9m asl) in northeast Beijing, Lin'an (30.3ºN, 119.73ºE, 138m asl) in Yangtze Delta, and Longfengshan (44.73ºN, 127.6ºE, 310m asl) in northeastern China. It shows for the first time the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and regional differences based on internationally recognized weekly air sampling data from September 2006 to August 2007. The study is reported in Issue 52 (November, 2009) of Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences.
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) through its Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Program, coordinates the observations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere through a network of stations located in more than 50 countries. According to its 5th Greenhouse Gases Bulletin announced on 23 November 2009, the globally averaged mixing ratio of atmospheric CO2 in 2008 was 385.2ppm (number of molecules of the gas per million molecules of dry air), with an increase of 2.0ppm from the previous year, continuing the trend of exponential increase. Since 1750, atmospheric CO2 has increased by 38% primarily because of emissions from combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, and land use change, contributing 63.5% to the increase in overall radiative forcing. The Bulletins provide critical information on the global state of the atmosphere in a concise manner and highlight recent accomplishments of research and technology application. The 2008 Bulletin precedes the 15th session of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Copenhagen, 7-18 December 2009).
Long-term observation since 1990 at Waliguan GAW global station in western China validated comparable atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios to that of other global background stations in the world. The data were widely used by the WMO Greenhouse Gases Bulletins and series of scientific reports such as IPCC assessments. Results from this study further shows that atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios at Waliguan, Shangdianzi, Lin'an, and Longfengshan were 383.5, 385.9, 387.8, and 384.3 ppm, respectively, during the research period from September 2006 to August 2007. The atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio at the Waliguan station changed slightly. However, it changed sharply at the Shangdianzi and the Lin'an stations due to great influence of human activities in the Jingjinji and the Changjiang Delta economic zones, and changed regularly with seasons at Longfengshan station under dual influences of human activities and plant photosynthesis. The results from this study could lay the foundation for more profound studies in different areas of China, and could be used to improve the understanding of carbon source and sink distribution.
The authors are affiliated with the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences in Beijing, the main research body of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). In order to establish a unified Chinese atmospheric greenhouse gases observing system and well integrate it into the global network, they are keen on working with international colleagues through intensive collaborations, especially under the GAW framework. The system will link to international standard scales and improve geographical coverage of the network, which is necessary for the integrated database and for proper use. This work aims at the highest quality and accuracy possible to identify trends, seasonal variability, spatial and temporal distribution, source, and sink strengths of greenhouse gases to improve our understanding of the carbon cycle and predict how the atmosphere and climate will evolve in the future as a result of human's activities.
Funding for this research is from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 40775078), the National Non-profit Research Project to Serve the Public Interest (Grant No. GYHY200806026), and the International S & T Cooperation Program of the MOST (Grant No. 2007DFA20650).
1. IPCC, 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
2. Zhou X J. The Summary Report of China Atmosphere Watch Baseline Observatory. Beijing: China Meteorological Press, 2005.
3. Zhou L X, Zhou X J, Zhang X C, et al. Progress in the study of background greenhouse gases at Waliguan observatory. Acta Meteorol Sinica, 2007, 65(3): 458-468.
4. Zhou L X, James W, White C, et al. Long-term record of atmospheric CO2 and stable isotopic ratios at Waliguan Observatory: Seasonally averaged 1991� source/sink signals, and a comparison of 1998� record to the 11 selected sites in the Northern Hemisphere. Global biogeochem Cycles, VOL 20, GB2001, doi: 10.1029/2004GB002431, 2006.
Lingxi Zhou | EurekAlert!
New technologies and computing power to help strengthen population data
22.03.2018 | University of Southampton
New interactive map shows climate change everywhere in world
22.03.2018 | University of Cincinnati
Satellites in near-Earth orbit are at risk due to the steady increase in space debris. But their mission in the areas of telecommunications, navigation or weather forecasts is essential for society. Fraunhofer FHR therefore develops radar-based systems which allow the detection, tracking and cataloging of even the smallest particles of debris. Satellite operators who have access to our data are in a better position to plan evasive maneuvers and prevent destructive collisions. From April, 25-29 2018, Fraunhofer FHR and its partners will exhibit the complementary radar systems TIRA and GESTRA as well as the latest radar techniques for space observation across three stands at the ILA Berlin.
The "traffic situation" in space is very tense: the Earth is currently being orbited not only by countless satellites but also by a large volume of space...
An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.
The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...
In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.
Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...
Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.
They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...
23.03.2018 | Event News
19.03.2018 | Event News
16.03.2018 | Event News
23.03.2018 | Life Sciences
23.03.2018 | Materials Sciences
23.03.2018 | Process Engineering