Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Network observation at the GAW stations and atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios over China

09.12.2009
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important greenhouse gas regulated by the Kyoto Protocol. Human activities, such as fossil fuel burning and land use change, are major emitters of CO2, which is widely recognized as drivers of global warming and climate change.

In the past decades, the field campaign and research program were only conducted at a few sites in China by different agencies. However, none of those measurements could effectively document spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric CO2 and provide essential information for our understanding of regional differences and distributions over China.

Thus, it is essential to establish a long-term observational network at multiple sites and carefully calibrate on internationally agreed reference scales with better quality controls.

Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences in Beijing initiated network observation at the four Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) stations in China: Waliguan (36.29ºN, 100.90ºE, 3816m asl) in remote western China, Shangdianzi (40.39ºN, 117.07ºE, 293.9m asl) in northeast Beijing, Lin'an (30.3ºN, 119.73ºE, 138m asl) in Yangtze Delta, and Longfengshan (44.73ºN, 127.6ºE, 310m asl) in northeastern China. It shows for the first time the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and regional differences based on internationally recognized weekly air sampling data from September 2006 to August 2007. The study is reported in Issue 52 (November, 2009) of Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences.

World Meteorological Organization (WMO) through its Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Program, coordinates the observations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere through a network of stations located in more than 50 countries. According to its 5th Greenhouse Gases Bulletin announced on 23 November 2009, the globally averaged mixing ratio of atmospheric CO2 in 2008 was 385.2ppm (number of molecules of the gas per million molecules of dry air), with an increase of 2.0ppm from the previous year, continuing the trend of exponential increase. Since 1750, atmospheric CO2 has increased by 38% primarily because of emissions from combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, and land use change, contributing 63.5% to the increase in overall radiative forcing. The Bulletins provide critical information on the global state of the atmosphere in a concise manner and highlight recent accomplishments of research and technology application. The 2008 Bulletin precedes the 15th session of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Copenhagen, 7-18 December 2009).

Long-term observation since 1990 at Waliguan GAW global station in western China validated comparable atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios to that of other global background stations in the world. The data were widely used by the WMO Greenhouse Gases Bulletins and series of scientific reports such as IPCC assessments. Results from this study further shows that atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios at Waliguan, Shangdianzi, Lin'an, and Longfengshan were 383.5, 385.9, 387.8, and 384.3 ppm, respectively, during the research period from September 2006 to August 2007. The atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio at the Waliguan station changed slightly. However, it changed sharply at the Shangdianzi and the Lin'an stations due to great influence of human activities in the Jingjinji and the Changjiang Delta economic zones, and changed regularly with seasons at Longfengshan station under dual influences of human activities and plant photosynthesis. The results from this study could lay the foundation for more profound studies in different areas of China, and could be used to improve the understanding of carbon source and sink distribution.

The authors are affiliated with the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences in Beijing, the main research body of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). In order to establish a unified Chinese atmospheric greenhouse gases observing system and well integrate it into the global network, they are keen on working with international colleagues through intensive collaborations, especially under the GAW framework. The system will link to international standard scales and improve geographical coverage of the network, which is necessary for the integrated database and for proper use. This work aims at the highest quality and accuracy possible to identify trends, seasonal variability, spatial and temporal distribution, source, and sink strengths of greenhouse gases to improve our understanding of the carbon cycle and predict how the atmosphere and climate will evolve in the future as a result of human's activities.

Funding for this research is from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 40775078), the National Non-profit Research Project to Serve the Public Interest (Grant No. GYHY200806026), and the International S & T Cooperation Program of the MOST (Grant No. 2007DFA20650).

Reference:

1. IPCC, 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

2. Zhou X J. The Summary Report of China Atmosphere Watch Baseline Observatory. Beijing: China Meteorological Press, 2005.

3. Zhou L X, Zhou X J, Zhang X C, et al. Progress in the study of background greenhouse gases at Waliguan observatory. Acta Meteorol Sinica, 2007, 65(3): 458-468.

4. Zhou L X, James W, White C, et al. Long-term record of atmospheric CO2 and stable isotopic ratios at Waliguan Observatory: Seasonally averaged 1991� source/sink signals, and a comparison of 1998� record to the 11 selected sites in the Northern Hemisphere. Global biogeochem Cycles, VOL 20, GB2001, doi: 10.1029/2004GB002431, 2006.

5. http://www.ipcc.cma.gov.cn/cn/

6. http://www.scichina.com:8080/sciDe/EN/volumn/current.shtml

7. http://www.bgc.mpg.de/service/iso_gas_lab/IAEA-WMO2009/index.shtml

8. http://www.wmo.int/pages/resources/multimedia/greenhousegases.html

Lingxi Zhou | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cams.cma.gov.cn

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Sediment from Himalayas may have made 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake more severe
26.05.2017 | Oregon State University

nachricht Devils Hole: Ancient Traces of Climate History
24.05.2017 | Universität Innsbruck

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

First Juno science results supported by University of Leicester's Jupiter 'forecast'

26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>