In 2003, the PAC reform set up a new system for allocating subsidies provided to farmers. The measures adopted are based on the respect of environmental regulations, the payment of a direct subsidy based on the area of land not in production, as well as the reinforcement of subsidies for rural development.
Implementation of this reform, beginning in 2005, raised a number of questions on the possible direction agriculture would take and the future of the farming profession: changes in cropping, the amount of uncultivated land, consequences on landscapes, and the market supply in grains, oil-producing crops, and protein crops.
- Freeze-frame on Provence...
It is within this context in 2006 and 2007 that Cemagref scientists conducted a study designed to identify the strategies adopted by large-scale farmers in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (PACA) region. This study, financed by the PACA Regional Council, was based on surveys taken among large-scale farmers in three contrasted agricultural zones: a dry agricultural zone and an irrigated agricultural zone situated in the Alpes de Haute-Provence department, and a periurban agricultural zone near the city of Aix-en-Provence, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department. Interviews were conducted on a representative sample of farmers, roughly 30 per zone. In addition to describing the existing farm systems, the questionnaires aimed to clarify the strategies farmers were implementing in five domains: the choice of crops, crop management strategies, land management strategies, the diversification of activities, and the development of practices and products.
- The effects of the CAP need to be put into perspective
One direct effect of this reform concerns cropping, although these choices have a more nuanced effect on farmers’ other strategies. Thus, in 2006, the acreage devoted to durum wheat clearly decreased in the three zones, with other diversification crops (hybrid lavender, feed crops, seed crops, barley, sunflower, and rape seed, for example). In 2007, however, the CAP effect was counterbalanced by the sharp increase in grain prices that curbed the decrease in land area planted in durum wheat by renewing the interest in this crop. Assisting farmers in becoming reactive to market signals was indeed one of the objectives of the 2003 reform. The study shows that nonproduction remains a very marginal land use practice.
The effects of the CAP need to be put into perspective in relation to all the internal and external factors affecting the farm. These include the socioeconomic context (tension on the world grain market, price of irrigation water, etc.), the climate in Provence marked by repeated droughts since 2003, the characteristics of production tools (soils, available labor, etc.), as well as the factors directly related to the farming family (technical skills, preferences, and personal projects). Given today’s high grain prices, the CAP reform does not fundamentally change the shape of agriculture in Provence. However, the CAP is not rigid: changes are being negotiated to respond to the mutations in the world context.[The CAP, a few landmarks
Marie Signoret | alfa
Climate change, population growth may lead to open ocean aquaculture
05.10.2017 | Oregon State University
New machine evaluates soybean at harvest for quality
04.10.2017 | University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
18.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy